Introduction to Keys

[The keys and descriptions below are based on over 7500 Ecuadorean collections of mostly herbarium specimens, but in addition living (in situ), greenhouse-grown plants, material preserved in FAA or alcohol, and photographs taken from fresh, field or greenhouse-grown material. Floral measurements are taken from herbarium material at anthesis unless otherwise stated; colors when given are from fresh material observed by the author unless otherwise stated; measurements separated by the times sign (x) signify length by width, respectively; if a range of measurements is not available, the known measurement is preceeded by the abbreviation ca (about); calyx limb length includes measurement of the lobes, and anther length includes thecae and tubules.