Preliminary checklist of the flora of the Una Biological Reserve

Wm. Wayt Thomas, André M. de Carvalho, André Amorim, and Judith Garrison


For over five years, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, USA (NY), and the Center for Cocoa Research, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil (CEPEC), have been collaborating to conserve and better understand the flora of southern Bahia, Brazil, with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. This collaboration includes a program to collect plants in the area's different vegetation types, quantitative inventory of specific forest sites, education of local students, increasing public awareness of the impact of deforestation, and infrastructure support for CEPEC. One of our study sites has been the Una Biological Reserve. Below we present a preliminary checklist of the plant species of the Reserve along with introductory information on the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil.

The Atlantic Coastal Forest, an Overview:

The coastal rain forest once extended from Rio Grande do Norte south to the coastal area of Rio Grande do Sul, forming a narrow fringe of forest sandwiched between the ocean and the dry uplands of the planalto. Because of its geographic isolation from other forest types, this forest has one of the highest percentages of endemism in the world: over 50% of the tree species (Mori et al. 1981) and 92% of the amphibians (Lynch 1979) are found nowhere else in the world. Thus, the assemblage of plant and animal species found here is not merely a displaced portion of the Amazonian forest, but constitutes a unique floristic province that is seriously threatened (Mori et al. 1983, Mori 1989).

Despite sharing some of its flora and fauna with the Amazonian forest (Brown 1987b, Mori 1989), the Atlantic forests have been considered to be a distinct neotropical forest type (Lynch 1979, Cracraft 1985, Vanzolini 1988, Mori 1989). In recent surveys of the biota of South American tropical forests, the Atlantic forest region of Brazil is widely considered to comprise one or more distinct areas of endemism (Duellman 1979, Prance 1982, 1988, Buckley et al. 1985, Brown 1987a, 1987b, Whitmore & Prance 1987, Vanzolini and Heyer 1988). For many groups of organisms (including plants, some Lepidoptera, some Hymenoptera, and amphibians), southern Bahia and northern Espírito Santo are thought to comprise a distinct area of endemism (Richards 1978, Lynch 1979, Brown 1987a, Prance 1988).

The Southern Bahian Moist Forest.

In southern Bahia, the remaining coastal forests occupy a belt approximately 100-200 km wide along the Atlantic coast. The forests gradually become drier inland, changing from the littoral restinga forest to the southern Bahian wet forest (rain forest) to the southern Bahian moist forest (subdeciduous forest) to the liana forest (seasonally dry deciduous forest) (Gouvêa et al. 1976, Mori 1989). Each of these forest types occupies a narrow zone up to 50 km wide within the coastal forest belt and varies in composition depending on elevation, soils, and drainage. Within the southern Bahian wet forest zone, variation in soils and topography results in a patchwork of diverse micro-habitats within the superficially uniform forest type.

The Una Biological Reserve:

The inland vegetation of the Reserve is classified as southern Bahian wet forest (mata higrófila sul-Bahiana of Gouvêa et al. 1976) and that near the coast as restinga over sand. The lack of a distinct dry season and the high rainfall (over 1300 mm per year) place both reserves within the Af climatic region (hot, moist tropical forests) of Köppen (1936).

The Reserve was created in 1980 and is located in the Municipio of Una, ca. 40 km south of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (15°10'S, 39°03'W). Now comprising 7000 hectares of protected land, the Reserve is irregularly shaped, 15 km long east to west and 8 km wide north to south. The town of Una, from 1965-1973, received an average rainfall of 1918 mm/year (Rocha Filho 1976) and experiences 1-2 dry months per year in which less than 5 percent of the annual precipitation falls (Roeder 1975). The eastern half of the Reserve, nearest the coast, has two principal soil types that support a distinct vegetation type, the restinga forest. While most of this half of the Reserve is primary forest, ca. 700 ha is disturbed. While restinga vegetation is often only shrubby, in the Reserve it is a forest that can be distinguished by the presence of an endemic palm, Attalea funifera Mart. To the west, the restinga forest is replaced by southern Bahian wet forest (rain forest) over laterite. Of this 3500 ha, ca. 1500 ha is degraded land, most of it disturbed forest. Locally, the high variation in these laterites may partly explain the variation we have observed in composition of the vegetation.

The Checklist:

The checklist's family sequence is that of The New York Botanical Garden, starting with the ferns and fern allies followed by the monocots and then the dicots. Genera and species are alphabetical within each family. Basically, we have included only identified species, occasionally we have included "sp. nov." when a specialist has confirmed that a collection represents a new species. Some genera are listed followed only by "sp."; this indicates that there is at least one other unidentified species of that genus besides any listed that are already identified to species. We are considering expanding the list to include all the separate "morphospecies" we can distinguish, even if they are currently unidentified.

Each species is represented in the list by one voucher collection, even though there may be other collections of the species; in time, other vouchers will be added to the list. All collections cited are represented at CEPEC and all except unicates at NY. The most frequently cited collectors are abbreviated as follows: André M. Amorim (AA), André M. de Carvalho (AC), Jomar Jardim (JJ), Sergio Sant'Ana (SS), and Wm. Wayt Thomas (WT).

Some species names are highlighted and are linked to images. The images are from photographic slides taken in the field and transferred to a Kodak PhotoCD. The images were then cropped and transferred to the JPG format. All images are high quality with good exposure, color and focus; if the image on your screen is poor, you may have equipment or a web browser that may not be able to maximize the quality of the image. In order to ensure that the images can be viewed without excessive delay, the size of the image file has been kept small. Should you require a more detailed image, write explaining your needs.

The geographic distributions of the species in this list are indicated by the following codes: CF = entire coastal forest of Brazil; CF-N = coastal forest, Bahia and north; CF-S = coastal forest, bahia and south; DJ = Amazonian disjuncts; E = endemic to southern Bahia and northern Esp¡rito Santo; Pan = Pantropical; SA = South America; Unk = distribution unknown.

 Leucobryum albicans (Schwaegr.) Lindb.          [SA] AA 775

 Lycopodium cernuum L.                           [Pan] AA 1259

 Anemia mandioccana Raddi                        [CF-S] AA 832
 Anemia phyllitidis (L.) Sw.                     [Pan] AA 1145
 Asplenium serratum L.                           [Pan] WT 9430
 Campyloneuron phyllitidis (L.) Presl            [Pan] AC 6112
 Cyclodium meniscioides (Willd.) Presl           [Pan] AA 1221
 Dicranoglossum furcatum J. Smith                [SA] AA 1367
 Gleichenia remota (Kaulf.) Spreng.              [Pan] AA 1135
 Grammitis sp.                                   [--] AC 6081
 Lindsaea lancea (L.) Bedd.                      [Pan] AA 855
 Lindsaea stricta (Sw.) Dryander                 [Pan] JJ 97
 Lomogramma guianensis (Aubl.) Ching             [Pan] AA 1147
 Lygodium volubile Sw.                           [Pan] SS 278
 Nephrolepis rivularis (Vahl) Mett. ex Krug      [Pan] AC 4243
 Polypodium hirsutissimum Raddi                  [SA] AA 828
 Schizaea elegans (Vahl) Sw.                     [Pan] JJ 555
 Schizaea fluminensis Miers ex Sturm.            [SA] AA 838
 Stigmatopteris guianensis (Kl.) C. Chr.         [SA] WT 9433
 Thelypteris longifolia (Desv.) Tryon            [SA] AA 1215
 Trichomanes elegans Rich.                       [SA]  Hage 2375
 Trichomanes pinnatum Hedw.                      [Pan] AA 1198
 Trichopteris corcovadensis (Raddi) Copel.       [CF-S] AA 1613
 Trichopteris praecinta (Kunze) Tryon            [E] AA 1155
 Vittaria lineata (L.) J. Sm.                    [Pan] AA 1380

 Criciuma assymetrica Soderstrom & Londo¤o       [E] AC 4372
 Ichnanthus bambusiflorus Doell.                 [CF] AA 780
 Ichnanthus drepanophyllus Mez                   [E] WT 9425
 Ichnanthus nemoralis Hitchc. & Chase            [Pan] AA 1397
 Ichnanthus tenuis Hitchc. & Chase               [Pan] SS 287
 Merostachys sp.                                 [--] AC 4365
 Olyra latifolia L.                              [Pan] AA 1374
 Olyra micrantha Kunth                           [SA] AA 764
 Panicum pilosum Sw.                             [Pan] AC 4371
 Parodiolyra ramosissima (Trin.) Soderstr. & Zuloaga
                                                 [E] AC 4093
 Pharus lappulaceus Aubl.                        [Pan] SS 266
 Schizachyrium microstachyum (Desv.) Roseng.
                                                 [Pan]SS 292

 Becquerelia clarkei T. Koyama                   [E] WT 9418
 Becquerelia cymosa Brogng.                      [SA]Santos 150
 Calyptrocarya fragifera Nees                    [Pan] AA 1142
 Cyperus haspan L.                               [Pan] SS 277
 Cyperus odoratus L.                             [Pan] AA 1457
 Diplacrum capitatum Boeck.                      [Pan] AA 1139
 Eleocharis interstincta R. Br.                  [Pan] AA 1165
 Hypolytrum bullatum C. B. Clarke                [E] WT 10318
 Rhynchospora cephalotes (L.) Vahl               [Pan] SS 353
 Rhynchospora comata (Link) Roem. & Schult.      [Pan] AA 1096
 Rhynchospora exaltata Kunth                     [Pan] AA 1289
 Rhynchospora marisculus Nees                    [Pan] SS 289
 Rhynchospora pubera (Vahl) Boeck.               [SA] WT 10305
 Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale                 [Pan] WT 10312
 Rhynchospora tenuis Link                        [Pan] WT 10303
 Scleria bracteata Cav.                          [Pan] WT 10324
 Scleria secans (L.) Urb.                        [Pan] WT 10325
 Scleria sp.                                     [--] AA 767

 Attalea funifera Mart.                          [CF-N] AA 1160
 Bactris bahiensis Noblick                       [E] SS 367
 Bactris hirta Mart.                             [DJ] AA 1394
 Bactris horridispatha Noblick                   [E] JJ 178
 Desmoncus orthacanthus Mart.                    [Pan] JJ 89
 Euterpe edulis Mart.                            [SA] AC 4519
 Geonoma cf. pauciflora Mart.                    [CF] WT 9438
 Geonoma rubescens H. Wendl. ex Drude            [CF-S] AA 1119
 Syagrus botryophora Mart.                       [E] AA 1263

 Evodianthus funifer Lindm.                      [Pan] AA  845

 Anthurium bellum Schott                         [E] JJ 517
 Anthurium gladiifolium Schott                   [E] JJ 525
 Anthurium jilekii Schott                        [CF-S] AA 1366
 Anthurium pentaphyllum G. Don                   [Pan] AA 1085
 Anthurium scandens Engl.                        [Pan] JJ 516
 Heteropsis rigidifolia Engl.                    [CF-S] WT 9447
 Monstera adansonii Schott                       [Pan] JJ 521
 Monstera sp. nov.                               [E] AA 834
 Philodendron eximium Schott                     [E] AA 1200
 Philodendron fragrantissimum (Hook.) G. Don     [Pan] AA 1258
 Philodendron insigne Schott                     [SA] JJ 509
 Philodendron longilaminatum Schott              [E] SS 364
 Philodendron ornatum Schott                     [SA] AA 1393
 Philodendron pedatum Kunth                      [SA] JJ 515
 Philodendron recurvifolium Schott               [E] AA 1255
 Philodendron rudgeanum Schott                   [SA] JJ 522
 Philodendron scandens C. Koch & Stello          [Pan] JJ 518
 Philodendron surinamense Engl.                  [DJ] JJ 514
 Philodendron williamsii Hook. f.                [E] AA 1337
 Rhodospatha oblongata Poepp. & Endl.            [SA] JJ 512
 Zomicarpa riedelianum Schott                    [E] JJ 520

 Rapatea paludosa Aubl.                          [SA] AC 4259

 Aechmea lamarckei Mez                           [CF-S] JJ 156
 Aechmea lingulata (L.) Baker                    [SA] AC 4080
 Aechmea mollis L.B. Sm.                         [E] AA 776
 Billbergia chlorostica Saunders                 [E] AA 1280
 Billbergia monelii Brongn.                      [E] JJ 268
 Catopsis sessiliflora (Ruiz & Pavon) Mez        [Pan] AC 6113
 Cryptanthus beuckeri E. Morren                  [E?] JJ 206
 Cryptanthus sp.                                 [--] JJ 151
 Guzmania lingulata (L.) Mez                     [Pan] AA 1444
 Hohenbergia belemii L.B. Sm. & Read             [E] AA 1163
 Hohenbergia ramageana Mez                       [CF] AA 1257
 Lymania alvimii (L.B. Sm. & Read) Read          [E] AA 1077
 Lymania azurea Leme                             [E] AA 1203
 Lymania smithii Read                            [E] WT 9439
 Nidularium sp. nov.                             [E] SS 535
 Nidularia weberii Pereira & Leme                [Unk] JJ 284
 Portea cf. petropolitana (Wawra) Mez            [CF-S] AA 1201
 Rombergia brasiliensis Pereira & Penna          [Unk] AC 6082
 Streptocalyx currani L.B. Sm.                   [E] AA 1079
 Tillandsia bulbosa Hook.                        [Pan] AA 1642
 Vriesea drepanocarpa (Baker) Miq.               [CF-S] AA 777
 Vriesea duvaliana E. Morren                     [CF-S] AA 1083
 Vriesea platynema Gaud.                         [Pan] AA 1395
 Vriesea procera (Mart. ex Schult. f.) Witt.     [Pan] AC 6117
 Vriesea psittacina Lindl.                       [CF-S] AA 1597
 Vriesea sp.                                     [--] AA 1407

 Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubl.) Standl.          [Pan] JJ 286
 Dichorisandra sp. nov.?                         [E] WT 9445

 Herreria salsaparrilla Mart.                    [SA] JJ 222

 Smilax sp.                                      [--] JJ 532

 Dioscorea sp.                                   [--] AA 1403

 Heliconia richardiana Miq.                      [SA] AA 1094

 Calathea argyrophylla (Linden ex Koch) Bailey & Raff.
                                                 [Unk] WT 9449
 Calathea brasiliensis Koern.                    [E] AA 1148
 Calathea rotundifolia (Koch.) Koern.            [Unk]Pugialli 283
 Ctenanthe pilosa (Schauer) Eichler              [CF-S] AA 1401
 Maranta sp.                                     [--] SS 273
 Monotagma grallatum Hagberg  ssp. grallatum     [E] AA 1654
 Saranthe sp.                                    [--] AC 4548
 Stromanthe porteana Griseb.                     [CF-S] AC 4538

 Gymnosiphon divaricatus (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.
                                                 [Pan] AA 1640

 Gongora sp.                                     [--] AA 1449
 Habenaria pratensis (Lindl.) Reichb. f.         [DJ] AA 1643
 Koellensteinia altissima Pabst                  [E] AC 4244
 Koellensteinia graminca (Lindl.) Reichb. f.     [SA] WT 10296
 Maxillaria cf. rufescens Lindl.                 [SA] AA 1680
 Pleurothallis sp.                               [--] JJ 266
 Polystachya sp.                                 [--] AA 1099
 Scaphyglottis sp.                               [--] AC 6080
 Stelis sp.                                      [--] WT 10304
 Stenorrhynchus sp.                              [--] JJ 357

 Peperomia macrostachya (Vahl) A. Dietr.         [Pan] JJ 10
 Peperomia magnoliaefolia A. Dietr.              [SA] AA 1204
 Piper caldense C. DC.                           [CF-S] AA 1609
 Piper ilheusense Yuncker                        [DJ] AA 1098

 Lacistema pubescens Mart.                       [SA] AA 1069
 Lacistema robustum Schnizl.                     [E] AA 1363

 Ficus insipida Willd.                           [Pan] AC 6124
 Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl.) Rusby
                                                 [SA] AA 1154
 Pourouma mollis Tr‚cul                          [SA]Lopes 515
 Pourouma velutina Miq.                          [SA] AA 840
 Sorocea hilarii Gaudich.                        [DJ] AA 1454

 Adenostephanus sp.                              [--] AA 1405

 Ixocactus clandestinus (Mart.) Kuijt            [SA] WT 10321
 Phoradendron acinacifolium Eichler              [Pan] AC 4547
 Phoradendron crassifolium (DC.) Eichler         [Pan] AC 4314
 Phthirusa sp.                                   [--] AC 4526
 Psittacanthus dichrous (Mart.) Eichler          [CF] AC 4523
 Struthanthus sp.                                [--] JJ 123

 Aptandra tubicina (Poepp.) Benth. ex Miers      [SA]Hage 2377
 Dulacia papillosa (Rangel) Sleumer              [E] JJ 115
 Heisteria raddiana Benth.                       [CF-S] AA 1404

 Aristolochia brasiliensis Mart. & Zucc.         [Unk] AA 1590

 Coccoloba confusa Haw.                          [DJ]Hage 2370
 Coccoloba ochreolata Wedd.                      [DJ] AA 1296
 Coccoloba parimensis Benth.                     [SA] AA 1557
 Coccoloba sp.                                   [--] AA 1296
 Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.                [SA] AA 1646

 Guapira cf. laxifolia (Choisy) Lundell          [E] AA 1621
 Guapira cf. nitida (Mart.) Lundell              [CF-S] WT 9444
 Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz                  [CF-S] WT 9409
 Guapira sp.                                     [--] AA 1358
 Neea floribunda Poepp. & Endl.                  [Unk] Santos 153
 Neea hirsuta Poepp. & Endl.                     [Unk] AC 4434
 Neea macrophylla Poepp. & Endl.                 [Unk] Hage 2368
 Neea madeirana Standl.                          [Unk] AA 1657
 Neea verticillata Ruiz & Pav.                   [SA] AA 1624

 Clematis dioica var. brasiliana (DC.) Eichler
                                                 [Pan] JJ 5374

 Chondrodendron microphyllum (Eichler) Moldenke  [E] AA 1426
 Orthomene schomburgkii (Miers) Barneby & Krukoff
                                                 [SA] AA 762

 Anaxagorea dolichocarpa Sprague & Sandwith      [Unk] AA 1396
 Duguetia bracteosa Mart.                        [E] AA 856
 Guatteria oligocarpa Mart.                      [E] AA 1220
 Guatteria sp.                                   [--] JJ 1570
 Hornschuchia bryotrophe Nees                    [CF-S] JJ 262
 Hornschuchia obliqua Maas & van Setten          [E] AA 794
 Hornschuchia polyantha Maas                     [Unk] AA 827
 Pseudoxandra bahiensis Maas                     [E] AA 1193
 Rollinia bahiensis Maas & Westra                [E] JJ 211
 Unonopsis sp.                                   [--] AC 4542
 Xylopia involucrata M.C. Dias                   [Unk] AA  1583

 Virola gardneri (DC.) Warb.                     [CF] AA 1341 
 Virola officinalis Warb.                        [E] SS 282

 Siparuna guianensis Aubl.                       [SA] AA 1455

 Aniba intermedia (Meisn.) Mez                   [E] AC 4249
 Cryptocarya sp.                                 [--] Hage 2362
 Licaria sp. nov.                                [E] WT 10299
 Licaria sp.                                     [--] Hage 2362
 Ocotea cernua (Nees) Mez                        [DJ] JJ 220
 Ocotea nitida (Meisn.) Rohwer vel aff.          [SA] JJ 176
 Ocotea sp.                                      [--] JJ 260
 Rhodostemonodaphne sp. nov.                     [E] Hage 2357

 Chrysobalanus icaco L.                          [Pan] WT 9415
 Hirtella angustifolia Schott ex Spreng.         [CF-S] AA 848
 Hirtella bicornis Mart. & Zucc.                 [SA] AA 1588
 Licania cf. disccolor Pilg.                     [SA] SS 285
 Licania hoehnei Pilg.                           [CF-S] AA 1281
 Licania lamentanda Prance                       [E] WT 10311
 Licania littoralis Warm.                        [CF] AC 4308
 Parinari alvimii Prance                         [E] JJ 274
 Parinari leontopitheci Prance                   [E] AA 1261
 Parinari littoralis Prance                      [E] JJ 533

 Connarus portosegurensis Forero                 [E] AA 1086

 Abarema filamentosa (Benth.) Barneby & Grimes
                                                 [CF] AA 1630
 Affonsea densiflora Benth.                      [E] JJ 267
 Balizia pedicellaris (DC.) Barneby & Grimes     [DJ] AA 1361
 Calliandra bella Benth.                         [E] AC 4258
 Inga bourgoni (Aubl.) DC.                       [SA] AA 1578
 Inga capitata Desv.                             [SA] AA 1117
 Inga thibaudiana DC.                            [Pan] AA 1245
 Inga subnuda Salzm.                             [Unk] AC 4525
 Inga unica Barneby & Grimes                     [E] JJ 108
 Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze                 [CF-S] WT 10328
 Mimosa pudica var. tetrandra (Willd.) DC.       [Pan] AA 1253
 Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC.) Lewis & Lima    [CF-S] AC 4309

 Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbr.                 [Pan] SS 361
 Arapatiella emarginata  Cowan                   [E] AA 1402
 Arapatiella psilophylla (Harms) Cowan           [E] AA 1387
 Chamaecrista duartei (Irwin) Irwin & Barneby    [E] AA 1290
 Chamaecrista ensiformis (Vell.) Irwin & Barneby [CF] AA 1606
 Dialium guianense Benth.                        [Pan] AA 1244
 Macrolobium rigidum Cowan                       [E] JJ 290
 Melanoxylon brauna Allemao                      [Unk] AA 1356
 Moldenhawera cuprea Pohl                        [Unk] AA 1149
 Moldenhawera sp.                                [--] AC 4431
 Myrocarpus fastigiatus Allemao                  [Unk] JJ 257
 Myrocarpus frondosus Allemao                    [CF-S] JJ 218
 Peltogyne chrysopis Barneby                     [E] AC 4306
 Sclerolobium densiflorum Benth.                 [E] AC 4095
 Senna affinis (Benth.) Irwin & Barneby          [CF-S] AC 4433
 Senna multijuga var. lindleyana (Gardner) Irwin & Barneby
                                                 [CF-S] AC  4430
 Senna silvestris (Vell.) var. sapindifolius (Vog.)
              Irwin & Barneby                    [E] AA  1167
 Zollernia modesta Carvalho & Barneby            [E] JJ 293

 Andira marauensis N. Mattos                     [E] AA 1238
 Andira sp.                                      [--] AA 1411
 Bowdichia virgilioides Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth    [Pan] AA 1351
 Dalbergia frutescens (Vell.) Britt.             [SA] JJ 124
 Desmodium axillare DC.                          [Pan] AA 1108
 Diplotropis purpurea (Rich.) Amshoff            [DJ] JJ 120
 Harleyodendron unifoliolatum R. Cowan           [E] AA 1254
 Swartzia flaemingii Raddi                       [CF] JJ 235
 Swartzia macrostachya Benth.                    [CF-S] AC 4031
 Swartzia peremarginata Cowan                    [E] AA 1626
 Swartzia simplex Spreng. var. ochnacea (DC.) Cowan
                                                 [Pan] AA 1384
 Vatareiopsis araroba (Aguiar) Ducke             [E] AA 1376
 Zornia gemella (Willd.) Vog.                    [Pan] JJ 360

 Oxalis alvimii Lourteig                         [E] WT 9850

 Humiria balsamifera var. minarum Cuatrec.       [CF-S] AA 1414
 Humiriastrum spiritu-sancti Cuatrec.            [Pan] AA 1391
 Sacoglottis sp.                                 [--] AA 852
 Schistostemon retusum (Ducke) Cuatrec.          [DJ] AA 1563

 Erythroxylum mattos-silvae Plowman              [E] AC 4535
 Erythroxylum nobile Schultz                     [E] AA 1218
 Erythroxylum martii Peyr.                       [Unk] AA 1603

 Angostura pentagyna (A. St. Hil.) Albuq.        [SA] AA 846
 Conchocarpus sp. nov. (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki & Pirani, ined.
                                                 [SA] WT 9420
 Dictyloma vandellianum Adr. Juss.               [CF-S] AA 1235
 Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart.                    [Pan] AA 1365
 Hortia arborea Engl.                            [CF-S] AA 1332
 Pilocarpus pauciflorus St. Hil.                 [CF-S] AA 1412
 Pilocarpus riedelianus Engl.                    [CF-N] AC 4533
 Rauia "gigantea" sp. nov.                       [E] WT 10308
 Rauia sp. nov. 1                                [E] JJ 191
 Rauia sp. nov. 2                                [E] AA 1604
 Zanthoxylum nemorale Mart.                      [E] AC 4516

 Simaba cedron Planch.                           [Pan] AA 1240
 Simarouba amara Aubl.                           [Pan] AC 6120

 Picramnia ciliata Mart.                         [CF-S] AC 4284
 Picramnia gardneri Planch. subsp. gardneri      [CF-S] JJ 152
 Protium aracouchini (Aubl.) Marchand            [SA] AC 4554
 Protium (sect. Icicopsis) sp. nov.              [E] AA 1419
 Protium sp. nov.                                [E] AA 763
 Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer                    [Pan] AA 1279
 Guarea sp. nov. ?                               [E] SS 360
 Trichilia lepidota Mart. subsp. lepidota        [E] AA  1151

 Banisteriopsis membranifolia (Adr. Juss.) B. Gates
                                                 [CF-S] AA 1270
 Byrsonima alvimii W.R. Anderson                 [E] AA 1262
 Byrsonima oblanceolata Nied.                    [CF-S] AA 1568
 Byrsonima sericea DC.                           [CF] AA 1579
 Byrsonima stipulacea Adr. Juss.                 [SA] AA 1601
 Heteropterys anomala Adr. Juss.                 [SA] AA 1398
 Heteropterys coleoptera Adr. Juss.              [CF-S] AA 1441
 Heteropterys rubiginosa Adr. Juss., vel. aff.   [DJ] AA 1372
 Stigmaphyllon acuminatum Adr. Juss.             [Unk] AA 1278
 Stigmaphyllon blanchetii C. Anderson            [CF-N] WT 9442
 Stigmaphyllon macropodum Adr. Juss.             [E] AA 1650
 Stigmaphyllon salzmannii Adr. Juss.             [E?] WT 9424
 Tetrapterys acutifolia Cav.                     [SA] AA 1574
 Tetrapterys mucronata Cav.                      [SA] AA 1340
 Tetrapterys phlomoides (Spreng.) Nied.          [CF-S] AA 1246

 Trigonia nivea Camb.                            [SA] AA 1334
 Trigonia rytidocarpa Casar.                     [CF-S] AA 1632

 Bredemeyera kunthiana (A. St.-Hil. & Moq.) Kl. ex Benn.
                                                 [CF-S] JJ 113
 Polygala cyparissias A. St.-Hil.                [CF] JJ 29
 Polygala sp.                                    [--] AA 1065
 Securidaca cf. leiocarpa Blake                  [Unk] AA 754

 Actinostemon klotzschii (Didr.) Pasc.           [CF-S] AC 4296
 Actinostemon sp.                                [--] AC 4256
 Adenophaedra megalophylla (Muell. Arg.) Muell. Arg.
                                                 [SA] AA 1209
 Aparisthmium cordatum (Adr. Juss.) Baill.       [SA] AC 4087
 Bernardia scabra Muell. Arg.                    [E] AA 1153
 Mabea glaziovii Pax & K. Hoffm.                 [CF-S] AA 1612
 Mabea piriri Aubl.                              [SA] WT 9414
 Ophthalmoblapton pedunculare Muell. Arg.        [CF-S] AA 1451
 Pausandra morisiana (Casar.) Radlk.             [CF-S] AA 1389
 Pera glabrata (Schott) Baill.                   [Pan] AA 1618
 Pera heteranthera (Schrank) I. M. Johnst.       [E] WT 10291
 Sebastiania gaudichaudii Muell. Arg.            [E] WT 9412
 Sebastiania hispida (Mart.) Pax                 [Unk] AA 756

 Tapirira guianensis Aubl.                       [Pan] AC 4520 
 Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth.                    [DJ] AA 1222

 Ilex theezans Mart. var. acrodonta (Reiss.) Loes.
                                                 [--]  AA 1225

 Tontelea attenuata Miers                        [DJ] JJ 180
 Tontelea sp.                                    [--] AA 1416

 Discophora guianensis Miers                     [Pan] AA 1067
 Emmotum nitens (Benth.) Miers                   [SA] Hage 2363
 Leretia cordata Vell.                           [SA] JJ 282

 Cupania bracteosa Radlk.                        [E] JJ 14
 Cupania crassifolia Radlk. vel aff.             [CF-S] AA 1355
 Cupania cf. racemosa (Vell.) Radlk.             [Unk] AA 1283
 Matayba cf. guianensis Aubl.                    [SA] WT 10316
 Paullinia racemosa Wawra                        [CF-S] AA 1653
 Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart.                [SA] AC 4517
 Serjania scopulifera Radlk.                     [E?] JJ 221
 Talisia elephantipes Sandw.                     [SA] AA 1103
 Talisia sp.                                     [--] AA 1305
 Thinouia sp.                                    [--] SS 291

 Cissus trigona Willd. ex Roem.                  [DJ] JJ 530

 Sloanea alnifolia Mart.                         [CF-S]Hage 2359
 Sloanea garckeana K. Schum., s.l.               [SA] WT 9437

 Apeiba albiflora Ducke                          [SA] AC 4514
 Triumfetta althaeoides Lam.                     [Unk] AC 6086

 Pavonia cancellata (L.) Cav.                    [SA] AC 4531
 Sida linifolia Cav.                             [Pan] JJ 538

 Eriotheca obcordata Robyns                      [E] JJ 202

 Davilla flexuosa A. St. Hil.                    [Unk] SS 572
 Davilla cf. grandifolia Moric. & Eichler        [SA] AC 4255
 Davilla kunthii A. St.-Hil.                     [Pan] AA 1399
 Davilla macrocarpa Eichler                      [E?] AA 1450
 Davilla sp.                                     [--] AA 1385

 Elvasia tricarpellata Sastre                    [Unk] AA 1564
 Ouratea decipiens Van Tieghem                   [Unk] AA 1228
 Ouratea sp.                                     [--] AA 1233
 Sauvagesia erecta L.                            [Pan] AA 1166
 Anthodiscus amazonicus Gleason & A.C. Sm.       [DJ] AA 1241

 Marcgravia cf. picta Willd.                     [Unk] AA 1250

 Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi var. neglecta         [E] SS 284
 Tovomita brasiliensis (Mart.) Walp.             [SA] SS 276
 Tovomita choisyana Planch. & Triana             [SA] AA 1136
 Tovomita mangle G. Mariz                        [Unk] AC 4098
 Vismia ferruginea Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth         [SA] AA 1090
 Vismia latifolia Choisy                         [SA] AA 1381
 Vismia mangle G. Mariz                          [--] AC 4098

 Paypayrola blanchetiana Tul.                    [E] AA 1074
 Rinorea bahiensis (Moric.) Kuntze               [SA] AC 4310

 Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi) A. Gray        [E] JJ 99
 Casearia commersoniana Camb.                    [Pan] AA 1348
 Casearia javitensis Kunth                       [SA] AA 793
 Casearia sp.                                    [--] AC 4245

 Passiflora alata Dryander                       [Unk] AA 1649
 Passiflora haematostigma Mast. ex Mart.         [CF-S] AA 1566
 Passiflora sp.                                  [--] AA 1195
 Tetrastylis ovalis (Vell.) Killip               [E] AA 1282

 Jacaratia heptaphylla (Vell.) DC.               [CF-S] AA 1607

 Daphnopsis cf. coriacea Taub.                   [Unk] AC 4436
 Daphnopsis sanctae-teresae Nevling              [SA] AC 4534

 Cuphea antisyphilitica Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth    [SA] JJ 7
 Cuphea sessilifolia Mart.                       [DJ] AA 1127
 Cuphea sp.                                      [--] SS 290

 Eschweilera alvimii Mori                         [E] AA 1600
 Eschweilera complanata Mori                      [Unk] Hage 2355
 Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers               [SA] SS 286

 Gomidesia martiana Berg                          [E] AC 4248
 Marlierea obversa Legrand                        [E?] JJ 214
 Marlierea verticillaris Berg                     [E?] AA 1334
 Myrcia alagoensis  Berg                          [CF-N] AA 1162
 Myrcia fallax (Rich.) DC.                        [SA] AA 1576
 Myrcia insularis Gardner                         [SA] JJ 215
 Myrcia obtecta (Berg) Kiaersk.                   [SA] JJ 147
 Neomitranthes sp.                                [--] AA 1429
 Plinia sp.                                       [--] SS 365

 Aciotis acutiflora (Mart.) Triana                [SA] AA 1375
 Aciotis cf. paludosa (DC.) Triana                [SA] AA 1141
 Bertolonia carmoi Baumgratz                      [E] AA 1593
 Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) Don                [Pan] SS 349
 Henriettea succosa (Aubl.) DC.                   [Pan] AA 758
 Leandra cf. lancifolia Cogn.                     [CF-S] AA 1197
 Leandra rhamnifolia (Naud.) Cogn.                [Unk] AA 1608
 Leandra rufescens (DC.) Cogn.                    [SA] JJ 110
 Miconia centrodesma Naud.                        [Unk] JJ 554
 Miconia cf. octopetala Cogn.                     [E] AA 1272
 Miconia chartacea Triana                         [SA] AA 1423
 Miconia lurida Cogn.                             [CF-S] JJ 93
 Miconia nervosa Triana                           [SA] AA 1152
 Miconia pileata DC.                              [Unk] AA 1068
 Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC.                        [SA] AC 4521
 Miconia rimalis Naud.                            [E] AC 4084
 Miconia ruficalyx Gleason                        [DJ] SS 537
 Miconia serrulata (DC.) Naud.                    [SA] SS 274
 Tibouchina elegans (Gardn.) Cogn.                [E] JJ 2

 Didymopanax morototoni (Aubl.) Decne. & Planch.  [Pan] WT 9440

 Chrysophyllum splendens Spreng.                  [CF-N] AA 1126
 Ecclinusa ramiflora Mart.                        [SA] JJ 18
 Manilkara maxima Pennington                      [E] JJ 4
 Micropholis venulosa (Mart. & Eichler) Pierre    [Pan] JJ 146
 Micropholis gardneriana (A. DC.) Pierre          [SA] AC 4295
 Micropholis sp. nov.                             [E] JJ 227
 Pouteria bilocularis (Winkler) Baehni            [DJ] SS 362
 Pouteria reticulata (Engl.) Eyma                 [Pan] AC 4313
 Pouteria sp.                                     [--] JJ 103 
 Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.                    [SA] AA 1413
 Pradosia bahiensis Teixeira                      [E] JJ 92
 Pradosia lactescens (Vell.) Radlk.               [CF] AC 4543
 Sprucella crassipedicellata (Mart. & Endl.) Pires
                                                  [Unk] Hage 2367

 Diospyros miltonii Cavalc.                       [E] AA 850
 Diospyros sp.                                    [--] AA 1598

 Styrax glabratus Schott                          [SA] AA 1409

 Spigelia laurina Cham. & Schl.                   [CF-S] AA 843
 Strychnos bahiensis Krukoff & Barneby            [E] AA 1445

 Voyria flavescens Griseb.                        [Pan] AA 1639
 Voyria obconica Progel                           [CF-S] AA 798

 Anartia olivacea (Muell. Arg.) Marcgr.           [DJ] AA 144
 Aspidosperma oblongum DC.                        [SA] AA 1541
 Forsteronia sp.                                  [--] JJ 2
 Himatanthus phagedanicus (Mart.) Woodson         [Unk] WT 9436
 Lacmellea aculeata (Ducke) Monach.               [SA] AA 1229
 Macoubea sprucei (Muell. Arg.) Marcgr.           [DJ] WT 10320
 Malouetia cestroides (Nees & Mart.) Muell. Arg.  [Unk] AA 1437
 Mandevilla funiformis (Vell.) K. Schum.          [Unk] WT 9852
 Rauvolfia bahiensis A. DC.                       [E] AA 1602
 Tabernaemontana flavicans Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
                                                  [DJ] WT 9428

 Ditassa arianeae Font.                           [Unk] SS 560

 Ipomoea sp.                                      [--] AA 1577
 Jacquemontia sp.                                 [--] JJ 289

 Cordia bicolor A. DC.                            [Pan] SS 540
 Cordia magnoliaefolia Cham.                      [DJ] AA 1161
 Cordia nodosa Lam.                               [SA] AA 1194
 Cordia sagotii Johnston                          [SA] AA 772
 Cordia trachyphylla Mart.                        [DJ] AA 1248
 Cordia trichoclada DC.                           [CF-S] AA 1364
 Cordia sp.                                       [--] AC 4544
 Tournefortia gardneri A. DC.                     [CF] AA 1446
 Tournefortia sp.                                 [--] AC 4094

 Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl          [Pan] SS 288

 Hyptis atrorubens Poit.                          [Pan] AA 1378

 Athenaea lucida (Moric.) Sandw.                  [Unk] AA 1610
 Cestrum salzmannii Dunal                         [E] AA 1274
 Solanum polytrichum Moric.                       [E] AA 1092
 Solanum rupincola Sendtn.                        [E] AA 1088
 Solanum swartzianum Roem. & Schult.              [DJ] AA 1159
 Solanum thomasiaefolium Sendtn.                  [Unk] JJ 283

 Torenia thouarsii (Cham. & Schl.) Kuntze         [Unk] AA 1453

 Utricularia subulata L.                          [Pan] JJ 28

 Codonanthe uleane Fritsch                        [SA] AA 1260
 Nematanthus corticola Schrad.                    [E] WT 9432

 Adenocalymma cymbalum (Cham.) Burm. & Schum.      [CF] AA 1234
 Adenocalymma sp.                                 [--] AA 1256
 Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart.               [Pan] AA 1252
 Arrabidaea rego (Vell.) DC.                      [CF-S] AA 1237
 Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) Nichols             [SA] AA 1459
 Tabebuia stenocalyx Sprague & Stapf               [SA] JJ 361

 Aphelandra blanchetiana (Nees) Hook.             [CF-S] AA 1157
 Geissomeria nitida Nees                          [CF-S] JJ 210
 Justicia congrua (Nees) Lindau                   [E] WT 9435
 Justicia symphyantha (Nees) Lindau               [E] WT 9429
 Justicia sp.                                     [--] SS 267
 Ruellia affinis (Nees) Lindau                     [--] [E] AA 1105
 Ruellia glabra (Mart.) Lindau                    [Unk] AC 6111

 Mendoncia bahiensis Profice                      [E] AC 4552
 Mendoncia sp.                                    [--] AA 1216

 Alibertia concolor (Cham.) Schum.                [DJ] AA 1082
 Amaioua intermedia var. brasiliana (Rich.) Steyerm.
                                                  [SA] AA 1346
 Borreria cymosa Cham. & Schl.                     [CF-S] JJ 216
 Borreria sp.                                     [--] AA 1286
 Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.                      [Pan] AA 1131
 Chomelia sp.                                     [--] AA 1456
 Coccocypselum aureum (Spreng.) Cham. & Schl      [Pan] AA 1226
 Coccocypselum canescens Willd.                   [Unk] AA 790
 Coussarea bahiensis Muell. Arg.                  [CF-N] AA 1333
 Coussarea gracilifolia (Mart.) Hook. ex Charm    [Unk] AC 6076
 Coussarea cf. racemosa A. Rich.                  [DJ] AA 792
 Coussarea sp.                                    [--] AC 4081
 Declieuxia tenuiflora (Willd. ex Roem. & Pav.)
     Steyerm. & J.H. Kirkbr.                      [DJ] JJ 264
 Emmeorhiza umbellata (Spreng.) K. Schum.         [SA] AC 4251
 Faramea sessilifolia (HBK) DC.                   [SA] AA 839
 Faramea cf. martiana Muell Arg.                  [DJ] AA 1109
 Hillia parasitica Jacq.                          [Unk] AA 1442
 Ixora grandiflora Muell. Arg.                    [Unk] Hage 2354
 Machaonia acuminata H.B.K.                       [Unk] Santos 183
 Malanea macrophylla Bartl. ex Griseb.            [DJ] AA 1130
 Malanea sp.                                      [--] AA 1095
 Palicourea guianensis Aubl.                      [Pan] JJ 17
 Posoqueria sp.                                   [--] AC 4096
 Psychotria astrellantha Wernham                  [DJ] AA 1562
 Psychotria erecta (Aubl.) Standl. & Steyerm.     [Pan] AA 851
 Psychotria hancorniifolia Benth.                 [CF-S] AA 1211
 Psychotria jambosioides Sch. ex Charm.           [E] AC 4088
 Psychotria mapourioides DC.                      [Pan] AA 1338
 Psychotria platypoda DC.                         [SA] AA 1116
 Psychotria purpurascens Muell. Arg.              [CF-S] JJ 208
 Randia armata (Sw.) DC.                          [Pan] AA 769
 Salzmannia nitida DC.                            [CF-N] AA 1421
 Schradera polycephala DC.                        [SA] AA 1212
 Sipanea biflora (L. f.) Cham. & Schl.            [SA] AA 1156
 Stachyarrhena harleyi Kirkbr.                    [E] AA 791

 Cayaponia trifoliolata (Cogn.) Cogn.             [CF-S] JJ 19
 Cayaponia sp.                                    [--] JJ 229
 Gurania acuminata Cogn.                          [SA] AA 1435

 Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze          [Pan] JJ 363
 Diacranthera crenata (Schld. in Mart.) King & Rob.
                                                  [E] AA 1360
 Mikania mattos-silvae King & Rob.                [E] AA 1357
 Mikania salzmannifolia DC.                       [E] AA 1619
 Mikania trichophila DC.                          [CF-S] JJ 170
 Piptocarpha gustavo-valerioana G. Smith          [E] AA 1410
 Piptocarpha pyrifolia Baker                      [CF-S] JJ  279
 Piptocarpha venulosa Baker                       [E] AA 1377
 Rolandra fruticosa (L.) Kuntz                    [Pan] AA 1379
 Vernonanthura diffusa (Less.) Rob.               [CF-S] AA 1422

Literature Cited:

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_____. 1987b. Conclusions, synthesis, and alternative hypotheses. Pages 175-196, in: T. C. Whitmore and G. T. Prance (eds.), Biogeography and Quaternary History in Tropical America. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

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_____, B. M. Boom, and G. T. Prance. 1981. Distribution patterns and conservation of eastern Brazilian coastal forest tree species. Brittonia 33: 233-245.

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