The Botanical Review


These guidelines are intended to increase the uniformity of manuscripts and 
will speed the editorial and review process.  Authors are encouraged to
contact the Editor (THE BOTANICAL REVIEW, Scientific Publications Department,
The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, USA) whenever a 
contribution has some special requirement that is not discussed in the 
following guidelines.


Manuscripts must be received in final form, fully revised and checked for
typographical and other errors.
   1. Submit your manuscript assembled in the following sequence:
	First page.-Title, author(s), addresses), running head.
	Table of Contents.-Begin on new page.  Capitalize all proper nouns.
	   Do not include page numbers.  Make sure headings agree exactly with 
	   headings in text.  Primary headings are preceded by a roman numeral, 
	   secondary headings with a capital letter, tertiary headings with an
	   arabic numeral, and quaternary headings with a lowercase letter. 
	Abstract.-Begin on new page.  Authors must provide abstract in 
	   English and are urged to provide a translation into at least one other 
	   appropriate language (e.g., German, French, Spanish, or Russian).
	Text.-Begin on new page.  See guidelines below.
	Acknowledgments.-Summarize briefly under a separate heading at end of text.
	Literature Cited.-Begin on new page.  See guidelines below.
	Appendix.-If present, begin on new page.
	Legends.-Begin on new page.  See guidelines below.
	Text footnotes.-Begin on new page.  See guidelines below.
	Tables.-Each on a separate page.  See guidelines below.
	Appendix tables.-If present, begin on new page.
	Illustrations.-See guidelines below.
   2. All tables and illustrations must be cited in numerical sequence in
	   the text.
   3. Type last name(s) of author(s) and page number on upper right-hand
	   corner of every page of the manuscript.
   4. Double-space throughout every part of the entire manuscript.  Leave
	   at least a 2.5 cm margin on all sides.  Do not staple pages together.
   5. Submit one copy of the article plus the original manuscript.  The second
	   set of illustrations need not be in a form suitable for reproduction.
   6. Copyright: Request and obtain written authorization from the publisher
	   and/or  author to use materials (e.g., tables, graphs, illustrations,
	   etc.) from previously published sources.  Send the original authorizations
	   along with your manuscript.
   7. Word Processors: If possible, use a word processor for the preparation
	   of your manuscript. Do not justify the right-hand margin, as this may
	   lead to errors.  If possible, suspend hyphenation.  Use regular Courier
	   type, not a proportionally spaced font.  Be sure to include a floppy disk
	   (3 or 5) containing the text, tables, legends, etc.  Files compatible 
	   with IBM are preferred, but we will accept Macintosh disks when necessary.
   8. Do not abbreviate seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years.
   9. All unclaimed manuscripts will be discarded one month after date of
	   issue.  Original illustrations will be returned to authors.


We discourage the use of footnotes; much of this material can be worked into
	   the text.  If you must use them, keep them to a minimum and follow these 
   1. Type footnotes in paragraph form (all on one page) consecutively.  
	   Begin on new page.
   2. Number text footnotes using arabic numerals (for table footnotes, 
	   see below).
   3. Indicate in the text margin where the footnote is cited.


   1. All headings should be centered.  Primary headings should be preceded
	   by a roman numeral, secondary headings with a capital letter, tertiary
	   headings with an arabic  numeral, and quaternary headings with a
	   lowercase letter.
   2. Each figure and table must be cited in correct numerical sequence in the text.
   3. Each item listed in the Literature Cited must be cited in the text and vice versa.  
	  Citations in the text must match those in the Literature Cited (dates and
	  spellings) and vice versa. Check for spellings and dates, as well as for
	  diacritical marks in foreign-language citations.
   4. Underline generic and specific names only (and do not use italics).
   5. Do not use a period after abbreviations for units of measure (e.g., mm,
	   km, m, etc.).
   6. Examples of literature cited in the text:

For 2 authors: Orndorff and Lang (1981) or (Orndorff & Lang, 1981).

For 3 or more authors: name only the first author followed by et al.  Thus,
	   Nixon et al.  (1994) or (Nixon et al., 1994).  All authors' names should
	   appear in the Literature Cited.

Several different papers within a citation: Arrange in alphabetical order or 
chronological order consistently throughout the paper.  Thus, (Baetke et al.,
1978; Levin, 1965a, 1965b, 1965c, 1967; McHale & Alston, 1955) or (McHale &
Alston, 1955; Levin, 1965a, 1965b, 1965c, 1967; Baetke et al., 1978).  Use
a and b for two or more papers published by the same author(s) in the same 

In press: Tretyn (In press) or (Tretyn, in press).
Unpublished research and personal communications may be cited in the text
but not in the Literature Cited.  Thus, (P.  Endress, unpubl.) or (P.  Endress,
pers. comm.),


   1. List entries in alphabetical order by first author, then second author.
	   Entries for works by 3 or more authors are placed after the 2-author 
	   works by the same first author.  If there are two or more works cited
	   by the same author(s) (names in the same order), arrange chronologically.
   2. Use long dash for repeated author(s) (see sample below).
   3. Journal citations should be abbreviated according to Botanico-Periodicum-
   4. Underline generic and specific names only (and do not use italics).
   5. Citations designated as "in press" must have been accepted for
	   publication, and the name of the journal or press given.  They are 
	   listed as "in press" until actually published.
   6. There should be a period and a space after each initial in an author's name.


Allen, A. 1977.  Steps toward better scientific illustrations.  Ed. 2. Allen Press,
    Lawrence, Kansas.
Alston, R. E. 1968.  The genetics of phenolic compounds.  Pages 171-204 in
   J. B. Harborne (ed.), Biochemistry of phenolic compounds.  Academic Press,
    New York.
CBE Style Manual Committee. 1983.  CBE style manual: A guide for authors,
    editors,  and publishers in the biological sciences.  Ed. 5. Council of
    Biology Editors,  Bethesda, Maryland.
Dahlgren, R. M. T., H. T. Clifford & F. F. Yeo. 1985.  The families of
     monocotyledons:  structure, evolution, and taxonomy.  Springer-Verlag, New York.
Funk, V. A. 1982.  Systematics of Montanoa Cerv. (Compositae).  Mem.  New
    York Bot. Gard. 36:1-133.
_____& D. R. Brooks.198 1. Advances in cladistics.  The New York Botanical
    Garden, Bronx, New York.
Gifford, E. M. & A. S. Foster. 1988.  Morphology and evolution of vascular
    plants. Ed. 3. W. H. Freeman, New York.
Takhtajan, A. 1980.  Outline of the classification of flowering plants
    (Magnoliophyta). Bot.  Rev. 46:225-359.


1. Type each on separate page, double-spaced.
2. Number tables in roman numerals.  Center above table title.
3. Extensive or complex tabular material must be submitted in camera-ready
	   copy.  Take into consideration reduction to final size of 4.5 7 inches
	   (11.5 17.8 cm) (including table title and any footnotes).
4. The title should be centered, in upper and lowercase.
5. Table footnotes should be indicated by lowercase letters of the alphabet 
	   used as superscripts.  Type in paragraph form.
6. Use no vertical lines.


1. All legends should be numbered consecutively in arabic numerals.
2. Type legends for each plate in paragraph form (but not on separate pages)
	   starting with statement of inclusive numbers, e.g., Figs. 3-7.  
	   Descriptive title of plate followed by individual figure titles, as
	   3: Seeds of Ericaceae. 4: Calyx of Cavendishia (bar = 1 mm).
3. Size should be indicated by a bar in the illustration.  Because of the 
	   possibility of reducing illustrations, actual numbers for magnifications
	   are discouraged but allowed if necessary.


   1 . Should be designed to fit a space of 115 178 mm after reduction.  Allow
	   space for  the legend.
   2. Labeling should be done with press-on letters or a lettering instrument.  
	   Freehand labeling is unacceptable.
   3. When preparing composite plates, place photos with no space in between. 
	   Do not combine photos and line illustrations, as they are reproduced by
	   different methods.  Place numbers and/or letters on the photos and not
	   in the margins.
   4. Line illustrations should be designed for legibility at a reduction of 
	   up to 35%.
   5. Photographs should be the same size as they are to appear in the 
	   publication (see 1, above), if at all possible.
   6. Mount illustrations on white cardboard with at least 2.5 cm margin on 
	   all sides, and a protective sheet placed over them.  Ship illustrations
   7. Send original illustrations and/or high-quality black-and-white glossy
	   photographs or photostats of them.
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