Lactustrine System. Natural Lakes and Ponds Subsystem-- Oligotrophic dimictic lake community

Winter view of the Ice Pond

Physical Setting:Ice Pond is oval-shaped and covers approximately 186,155 square meters (18.6 hectares, 46 acres) in a valley formed by steep hills to the east and west. The approximate center of the lake is at 41.455ºN, 73.613ºW (± 10 m) and 135 m above sea level.

There is a smaller, un-named, lake or pond (37,450 m2) just outside the eastern edge of the study site. This lake is bordered on three sides by home sites and the fourth side by Farm to Market Road (Putnam County Rt. 62). Ceratophyllum demersum L. dominates the pelagic zone of this pond.

Substrate and Hydrology: The bottom of the Ice Pond consists of rock and gravel and drops steeply to a maximum depth of XX meters. Numerous springs throughout the area provide year-round inflow. Outflow is northward through Rich shrub fen, then into the Great Swamp, south of Patterson, New York. From there the waters abruptly turn southward and empty into the East Branch of the Croton Reservoir. The water in the Ice Pond is cold throughout the year and clear when stratified (winter and summer) and very cloudy during inversions (spring and fall). Wave action caused by wind is minimal due to the sheltering hills.

Biota: Benthic macrophytes were not found. Potamogeton amplifolius Tuck. and Potamogeton oakesianus J. W. Robbins & A. Gray are the most abundant free-floating macrophytes in the palagic zone. Ceratophyllum demersum L. is also present, but is more common in the adjacent Deep emergent marsh. Macrophytes of open water are all free-floating, mostly at or near the surface. Macrophyte diversity is highest in the littoral zones of the north and south shores adjacent to Rich shrub fens. Most species of the littoral zone are herbs, rooted in the bottom with floating leaves and emergent inflorescences. Characteristic species of the littoral zone include: Nuphar advena (Aiton) W. T. Aiton and Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. odorata. In protected coves, Pontaderia cordata L. may dominate.

Cultural: Until about 1920, Ice was harvested during the winter and shipped south on the adjacent railroad. Today, the Ice Pond is a popular fishing spot for local residents.

Specimen List

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