No. 10 - March 1996

Ignatz Urban and the "Symbolae Antillanae"

Richard A. Howard1

Ignatz [Ignatius, on several publications] Urban was born in Warburg, a small town in eastern Westphalia, Germany, on January 7, 1848. As the son of a prosperous brewer he received a good education, first at the Gymnasium in his home town and then at the college in Pederborn, where he matriculated in 1866. While in college his interest in Botany was aroused by his teacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme, and this was continued at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin under the tutelage of Alexander Braun, Paul Ascherson, and Leopold Kny. His education was interrupted by military training in 1869 and by active service in the Franco-German war from 1870 to 1871. He returned to the University and published his first botanical paper in 1872. After receiving the doctor of philosophy degree in 1873, Urban took a position as a teacher in Lichterfelde, near Berlin, where he stayed until 1878. His published botanical work during this period concerned the local flora of Lichterfelde and a continuation of his doctoral work on the genus Medicago. After the death of Alexander Braun in 1878, W. A. Eichler was appointed head of the Department of Botany at the University of Berlin, and he in turn appointed Urban the head assistant in the Botanical Garden. Urban was promoted to curator of the garden in 1883. From 1889 until his retirement in 1913 at the age of 65, he served as assistant director of the botanical museum with the title of professor.

Urban's contributions are divided into three principal areas, each clearly revealed in his publications. As the assistant and later the curator of the botanical garden, he gave his attention to garden plants, to techniques of growing new plant introductions, to seed distribution, and to the history of the Berlin Botanical Garden. It was Urban who supervised the transfer of the botanical garden activities from the historical site in Berlin to the current site in Berlin-Dahlem. His knowledge of handling seeds and growing plants is revealed in his use of such material in his later work on the vegetation of the West Indies. As Eichler's assistant and eventual successor as editor of the Flora Brasiliensis, Urban made a second major contribution, his studies of plants of South America. Urban is credited with many contributions to the Flora Brasiliensis and with most of the editorial supervision which led to the completion of the publication in 1906. The Introduction to the Flora Brasiliensis which Urban prepared is often cited as one of the finest and most valuable surveys of its type. Third, to many botanists the series of publications called Symbolae Antillanae seu fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis represents Urban's finest accomplishment, yet it is but one segment of a distinguished record of study and publication on the vegetation and the flora of the Antilles.

Urban's work on the West Indies was due in large measure to the influence and support of Leopold Krug. Krug was born in Berlin in 1833 in a prosperous and distinguished family. After completing his schooling he went to Bremen to be trained in a business career, which he started in Puerto Rico. Krug's business acumen is credited with his rapid rise to ownership of the firm in which he was first employed. He also married the daughter of a wealthy landowner, and thus his personal and business successes provided him with leisure time to devote to a personal hobby of zoology. Through a friend, Domingo Bello y Espinosa, whose profession was law, Krug's interest broadened to include plants. Together the lawyer and the businessman made collections and notes on the local flora and fauna. They attempted to identify the plants encountered with the aid of the works of Grisebach, de la Sagra, and De Candolle, but had little success.

As their collections also proved difficult to maintain in the tropics, Krug decided to supplement their observations with drawings from nature, and he eventually produced 340 plates giving the habit, the color of the flower and fruit, and often analytical drawings of the plant parts. When Krug returned to Berlin in 1876 he sought aid at the Botanical Garden and Museum for the identification of his material. Dr. Fritz Kurtz was the first to attempt to assist Krug. Although the amount of West Indian material in the museum was small, it did include the first ten centuries of Egger's exsiccatae from St. Thomas, Dominica, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, which had been identified at Copenhagen with the aid of the Vahl herbarium specimens.

In 1881, to the surprise of Krug, his former companion, Bello y Espinosa, published in the Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid, the first part of his "Apuntes para la Flora de Puerto Rico." A second part was issued in 1883. This material had been envisioned by Krug as a joint publication, and toward this supposedly collaborative effort he was still working. The "Apuntes" as it appeared, contained many changes from their joint effort and made no mention of Krug or of his contributions. Although new taxa were described, no specimens were cited. The descriptions were meager, and no reference was made to Krug's more detailed drawings.

In 1884 Kurtz emigrated permanently to Argentina, leaving to Urban the privilege of working with Krug and his material. Apparently Krug and his family were anxious to remove the reflection they felt had been cast on Krug's botanical efforts, and so they supported financially the goal Urban then set to enlarge the West Indian herbarium and to complete a sound study of the Puerto Rican flora. The collections of Krug and Bello had been made in the western end of Puerto Rico at a low elevation. As a first step, the plant collector, Paul Sintenis, was hired to collect plant specimens, with emphasis to be placed on the mountainous areas. Sintenis arrived in Puerto Rico in the fall of 1884 and collected until June of 1887, during which time he gathered 8450 numbers of pteridophytes and flowering plants. The best specimens were kept in the Berlin herbarium and the duplicate sets were sold. It is not clear if Urban ever knew that many of the specimens "collected" by Sintenis and distributed from Berlin proved to have spurious origins and data. In any case the funds obtained by the sale of duplicate specimens identified by Urban were used to further the collection of plant specimens on other islands.

It was about this time that Baron von Eggers retired from military service. Eggers had previously collected and written of the plants of the Danish islands in the Antilles. Urban, using Krug's financial support, offered to subsidize Eggers on further botanical explorations starting with a trip to the high mountain areas of Hispaniola. Through this collection, a total of nearly 4500 numbers of plant specimens was received. Eventually Eggers also presented to the Botanical Museum his personal herbarium which contained rare and unusual species of his very early collections.

To these Urban was able to add many other collections obtained by purchase and by exchange. An impressive report of the collectors whose specimens were represented in the Krug and Urban Herbarium is included in the obituary of Krug which Urban published in 1898 (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 16: 23-37. 1898). Krug and Urban managed to acquire a large set of the collections of Charles Wright, 1100 numbers of Bertero's collections from the Kurt Sprengel herbarium, numerous collections by Meyerhoff, de la Sagra, Torralbas, Weinland, Sauvalle, Spengel, Tillson, Jacquemont, Prax, and many others, which totaled over 12,000 numbers.

The contributions of Leopold Krug to this herbarium were material as well as financial. Urban recorded 1554 numbers that are credited to Krug, although these do include the collections made by Gundlach in Puerto Rico. [Gundlach, a professor of zoology, had been Krug's guest in Puerto Rico in 1875-1876, and during this time he collected plant specimens which Krug transferred in his own name to Berlin.] Among his most valuable contributions to the Krug and Urban herbarium were two catalogues. One of these was an annotated set of folders, each concerning the scientific name of one species in the West Indies. The second catalogue was a compilation of the vernacular names of West Indian plants. Krug's collection of 340 colored illustrations of Puerto Rican plants was also in the herbarium. In addition, Urban claimed to have obtained from Krug a handwritten copy of the third volume of MacFadyen's Flora of Jamaica, which was never completely published.

After Krug's death, and even after Urban's retirement, the additions to the herbarium continued. Urban collaborated in the study of the Cuban and Hispaniolan collections of Erik Ekman, and the Guadeloupe and Martinique collections of A. Duss; supported the collecting efforts of W. Buch and M. Fuertes; exchanged plants with N. L. Britton in New York, W. Fawcett in Jamaica, and other botanists in England and Trinidad. Urban was a prolific correspondent who never hesitated to write and request a fragment of a type specimen of a species he was studying. The postal cards in a meticulous hand were written in German except during a few years of the first World War, when Urban's correspondence was in English. The cards in many correspondence files or on herbarium sheets remain of great value in interpreting some of Urban's botanical decisions. While Urban was liberal in his requests for fragments, he was equally generous in supplying fragments or volunteering them. To aid the work of Wilhelm Buch in Haiti, Urban sent a complete set of fragments, often from type material, representing all the rare, unusual, or poorly collected species for Buch's study. With the destruction of nearly all the Krug and Urban herbarium in the Berlin fire during World War II these scattered fragments are all that remain of authentic material of many species of the West Indies.

The full size of the Krug and Urban herbarium was never revealed by its collectors. In 1922, in response to a request from B. L. Robinson, Urban placed a value of $20,000 on just the duplicate specimens in the herbarium. Urban indicated that he had given the herbarium to the State and, while he could sell the duplicates, the proceeds would go to the government and be of no personal help in spite of the hardships he was suffering from inflation.

Urban's early work with Krug on the West Indian flora was done while he was also responsible for work on the Flora Brasiliensis. Although the two floras presented similar problems and often concerned the same literature or the same species, the progress that Urban was able to make on each flora is astonishing. In 1886 Urban published the first of the papers he devoted primarily to collections from the West Indies. "Kleinere Mittheilungen über Pflanzen des Berliner Botanischer Gartens und Museums II" (Jahrb. Bot. Gard. Berlin 4: 241-259. 1886) contained notes of Krug on Dacryodes hexandra Griseb. which corrected observations by Bello; a description of Marcgravia sintenisii and one of Simarouba tulae from Puerto Rico, In 1892 the first number of the series "Additamenta ad cognitionem florae Indiae occidentalis" appeared in Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 15: 286-308, a series to consist of four parts, each describing many new taxa from the area. The genus Krugia, named in honor of Leopold Krug was published in 1893 by Urban as a single paper (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 11: 375. 1893). A third series of two papers, which was first entitled "Diagnosen westindischer Arten" and later "Plantae novae antillanae" was published in the Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin in 1895 and 1897.

In 1898 Urban published the first fascicle of the Symbolae Antillanae which ran as a series through nine volumes, the last published in March of 1928, There is very little information available concerning the series. Why it started, why it did not contain all of Urban's publications on the West Indies, or why it stopped are not clear. The many letters from Urban in the historical files of the herbaria at Harvard or at the New York Botanical Garden contain very few references to the Symbolae. In contrast to the information available for other journals, there are no notices of publication, no bills for the copies, or statements of price changes. Even in other botanical and horticultural journals of the period there are few notices of the Symbolae or reviews of its various issues. In a preface to the first volume, Urban stated that either the separate papers in the journals he had previously used for publication were not available to the botanists in the West Indies, or the volumes themselves were too expensive for them. He also suggested that his published work would sometime return to the series of papers he had established. Perhaps the original intent was to sell each fascicle of the Symbolae at a profit and thereby support the work of the Krug and Urban Herbarium. The first two volumes, however, contain evidence of pre-publication of portions of fascicles as reprints. Although Leopold Krug died in April of 1898 and the first fascicle of the Symbolae appeared in November of that year, he must have been a supporter of the work. In correspondence with B. L. Robinson, Urban credits a son of Krug with the continuation of some financial support of the series. In the first three volumes of the Symbolae, Urban published a particularly valuable synoptical review of the collectors, the authors, and the publications that concerned the flora of the Antilles, as well as miscellaneous papers as monographs or descriptions of new species. It is probable that the historical reviews were not acceptable to the editors of the standard periodicals in which Urban had published previously. The fourth volume of the Symbolae contained a flora of Puerto Rico and was dedicated to Leopold Krug. It was issued in four fascicles between 1903 and 1911. Although it contained no descriptions or keys to the taxa, the synonymy given has been basic to all subsequent work on the plants of the island. During the publication of this flora, six fascicles containing volumes five and six of the Symbolae were also issued. Volume seven comprised four fascicles issued between 1911 and 1913. Urban retired in 1913, shortly before the outbreak of World War I. In 1914 he began a series called "Sertum Antillanum" with the first number in volume 13 of Fedde's Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. This series comprised 30 numbers and concluded in 1930, just before Urban's death. The Symbolae was resumed with volume eight, a flora of Hispaniola, issued in 1920 and 1921, and was concluded with volume nine, the last fascicle of which was issued in 1928.

Upon his retirement Urban was able to devote even greater amounts of time to his work on the plants of the West Indies. He was receiving specimens regularly from Padre M. Fuertes in Barahona and W. Buch in Port-au-Prince. These, considered with the collections of H. F. A. von Eggers, H. von Türckheim, suggested that even more active exploration was needed. A young Swedish botanist, Erik L. Ekman, who had collected grasses and composites in Argentina, had come to Urban's attention through an application for fellowship support of work in Brazil (Howard, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 79: 80-95. 1952). Urban arranged that the Swedish fellowship awarded Ekman be used for collecting in Haiti, and although this was not with Ekman's approval, it began one of the most profitable associations recorded of field botanist and herbarium taxonomist. Ekman arrived in the Western Hemisphere at the outbreak of the first World War and could not reach Haiti. Instead he visited Cuba. His first collections were described in "Sertum Antillanum III" while the majority appeared as the series "Plantae cubenses novae vel rariores a clo. Er. L. Ekman lectae" in volume nine of the Symbolae Antillanae. He finally reached Haiti in 1917, and the scientific report of the collections of this expedition was treated as a list of additions to the flora and published in the Ark. Bot. (Stockholm). Urban described Buch's collections as "Novitates haitiensis" in the Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin. A Danish expedition to Beata Island collected plants, and these were described in a separate paper in the Dansk Bot. Ark. A classic investigation of the pre-Linnaean publication of Charles Plumier was issued as a Beiheft to Fedde's Repert. in 1920. A flora of Hispaniola consisting of two fascicles of 480 and 380 pages was published in 1920 and 1921 as volume eight of the Symbolae. Ekman's collecting continued and was intensified by this publication, and the records of new species formed series of papers which became "Plantae haitienses et domingenses novae vel rariores." The tenth and last part of this series in the Ark. Bot. was issued three months after Urban's death. Before the time of Urban's death, Ekman was ordered to stop his work in Hispaniola and begin again in Venezuela. In characteristic fashion he delayed his departure, and his last collections from Hispaniola are less thoroughly reported and many remain unidentified. On his 80th birthday in 1928 Urban was honored with the unveiling of a bust of his figure at the Botanical Museum. His colleagues around the world had been solicited for donations to create this memorial. Urban continued his work, appearing regularly in his laboratory until a few weeks before his death on the morning of his 83rd birthday in 1931.

The Symbolae Antillanae is one of the most comprehensive of publications on the flora of one small area of the world. It is equally unusual in being largely the work of one man. Although it was prepared under earlier rules of botanical nomenclature and not all parts are currently acceptable, the accuracy and completeness of the descriptions, the citations, and the references make the work of current as well as historical value. Urban's contributions on the plants of the Neotropics appeared in such a vast number of periodicals and series of papers that the ideal single complete index is not possible. The nine volumes of the Symbolae Antillanae are the largest segment of his work that can be handled in one cumulative index. It is published as an aid to easier work on the Antillean flora, and in respect and appreciation for the accomplishments of Ignatz Urban.

Selected biographies and bibliographies of Urban:

Anon. 1931. Kew Bull. 1931: 157.
Anon. 1931. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin, II, Beilage zu Heft 103.
Loesner, T. 1930. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 48: 205-225, photo.
Rendle, A. B. 1931. Proc. Linn. Soc. 143: 198-201.
Sampaio, A. J. de. 1928. Bol. Mus. Rio de Janiero 4: 31-68, photo.
Stapf, O. 1931. J. Bot. 69: 105-106.
Urban, I. 1906. Fl. Bras. 1(1): 207, 208.
Weatherby, C. A. 1936. Proc. Amer. Acad. 70: 587, 588.

Symbolae Antillanae
Dates of Publication

Volume I:
Fasc. I: 1 - 192 6 Nov 1898
Fasc. II: 193 - 384 10 Apr 1899
Seorsum impress.: 291 - 471 29 Jun 1899
Fasc. III: 385 - 536 15 Jan 1900
Volume II:
Fasc. I: 1 - 160 15 Jan 1900
Fasc. II: 161 - 336 20 Oct 1900
Seorsum impress.: 344 - 388 20 Apr 1901
Fasc. III: 337 - 508 1 Oct 1901
Volume III:
Fasc. I: 1 - 160 1 Mar 1902
Fasc. II: 161 - 352 15 Aug 1902
Fasc. III: 352 - 546 1 May 1903
Volume IV:
Fasc. I: 1 - 192 16 Sep 1903
Fasc. II: 193 - 352 15 Feb 1905
Fasc. III: 353 - 528 15 May 1910
Fasc. IV: 529 - 771 16 Sep 1911
Volume V:
Fasc. I: 1 - 176 20 May 1904
Fasc. II: 177 - 352 20 May 1907
Fasc. III: 353 - 555 20 May 1908
Volume VI:
Fasc. I: 1 - 192 15 Jul 1909
Fasc. II: 193 - 432 15 Dec 1909
Fasc. III: 433 - 721 24 Dec 1910
Volume VII:
Fasc. I: 1 - 160 15 Dec 1911
Fasc. II: 161 - 304 15 Jun 1912
Fasc. III: 305 - 432 1 Oct 1912
Fasc. IV: 433 - 580 15 Aug 1913
Volume VIII:
Pars I: 1 - 480 1 Feb 1920
Pars II: 418 - 860 1 Jun 1921
Volume IX:
Fasc. I: 1 - 176 1 Jan 1923
Fasc. II: 177 - 272 15 Mar 1924
Fasc. III: 273 - 432 1 Jan 1925
Fasc. IV: 433 - 568 15 Mar 1928

1 "Ignatius Urban and the 'Symbolae Antillanae'" [original title] by R. A. Howard first appeared as the introduction (pp. 1-6) in A cumulative index to the nine volumes of the Symbolae Antillanae seu fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis edited by Ignatius Urban, compiled and prepared by E. Carroll and S. Sutton, Introduction by R. A. Howard. 1965. Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University: Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. It is published here, with very minor changes, with permission of the author and of Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Collections in the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B)
of particular interest for the Flora of the Greater Antilles

Paul Hiepko

The world's largest and best studied collection of West Indian plants was kept at the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B) in the 1930's. This statement given with regard to the Herbarium Krug & Urban by Loesener (1931: 214) in his obituary on Ignatz Urban was, unfortunately, only true up to March 1, 1943, when the greater part of the old holdings of this herbarium were destroyed by fire in a bombing raid. The opinion that the herbarium was totally destroyed is wrong, even if it was widely circulated during the first decades after World War II. It was estimated that about one-half million (of 4 million) specimens were saved and among this remaining stock there are at least single specimens from nearly all old collections, especially among the surviving 20,000 types of the General Herbarium.

Comprehensive lists of the collections kept at B are given by Urban (1916) and Hiepko (1978, 1987). In his geographical index Urban (1916: 432 f.) lists the following collectors from the Greater Antilles: Alexander, Bertero, Bredemeyer, Britton, Buch, Caldwell & Baker, Christ, Combs, Churchill, Curtiss, Eggers, Ehrenberg, Favrat, Fuertes, Garber, Greene, de Grosourdy, Gruner, Gundlach, Hansen, Harris, Harshberger, Hart, Heller, Heuser, Humboldt & Bonpland, Jacquemont, Jaeger, Krause, Krug, Kuntze, Ledru, Linden, MacNab, March, Mayerhoff, Millspaugh, Morales, Moritz, Müller, Nash & Taylor, Nectoux, Otto, Palmer & Riley, Picarda, Plée, Poeppig, Poiteau, Prax, Prenleloup, Pringle, Purdie, Read, Rehder, Richard, Riedlé, Rothrock, Rugel, Sagra, Schomburgk, Schumann, Schwanecke, Shafer, Sintenis, Stahl, Stenzel, Swartz, Taylor, Torralbas, von Türckheim, Underwood & Griggs, Wilson, Wolff, Wright, Wullschlägel, Wydler, Xavier. Most of their collections were assembled in the Herbarium Krug & Urban which later continuously expanded by the collections of E.L. Ekman who added more than 24,000 numbers. The Herbarium Krug & Urban was kept separate until the death of Urban who, after retiring in 1913, has worked exclusively on the plants from the West Indies up to 1930. When the collection in 1933 was filed into the General Herbariumit consisted of 790 fascicles2. The building of this big herbarium started when Leopold Krug asked Urban in 1884 for aid for the identification of his plants collected in Puerto Rico. Krug, born in Berlin in 1833, lived as businessman from 1856 to 1876 in Puerto Rico. During this time he made collections and notes on the local fauna and flora. Finally his Herbarium Portoricense included 1554 numbers and he made 340 colored illustrations of plants (these illustrations, as well as Krug's two catalogues concerning scientific and vernacular names of West Indian plants, have been destroyed in 1943). Since the collections of West Indian plants in the Berlin herbarium were very poor at this time, Urban asked Krug for financial support to enlarge these collections as a sound base for the study of the flora of the Antilles. The first paid collectors were P. Sintenis and Baron von Eggers. A detailed report on the Herbarium Krug & Urban is included in Urban's obituary on Krug (Urban, 1898). Howard (1965) gives an impressive survey of the co-operation of Urban and Krug in the study of the West Indian flora. The surviving parts of the old Berlin herbarium are composed of the following (only examples relevant for the Flora of the Greater Antilles are given; for further details see Hiepko, 1987):

  1. Fungi: All of the material of Uredinales and Fungi imperfecti was saved.
  2. Pteridophytes: The pteridophyte herbarium is - apart from the small families Marattiaceae and Ophioglossaceae - completely extant; it may be the world's largest herbarium collection of pteridophytes, comprising ca. 300,000 specimens.
  3. Phanerogams: There are different sources for the extant material. a) For various reasons the material of some plant families, genera, and a few special collections escaped the destruction completely or to a great extent, e.g. Begoniaceae, Lobelioideae, Herbarium Willdenow (see below), collections of cones, dry fruits and seeds (with 113 no. collected by Sintenis and 59 no. of Eggers), and spirit collection (1898 Urban mentioned 239 spirit collections of Sintenis; when I made spot checks I found 8 specimens of Cactaceae and 14 specimens of Annonaceae). b) As has already been mentioned ca. 20,000 type specimens had been extracted from the General Herbarium and deposited elsewhere shortly before the bombing. Unfortunately this activity was not completed. Some larger families of which old types are extant are: Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Begoniaceae, Brassicaceae, Bromeliaceae, Campanulaceae (p.p.: Lobelioideae), Capparaceae, Cyperaceae (p.p.), Dioscoreaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Lauraceae, Liliaceae, Loranthaceae, Menispermaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Olacaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae (p.p.), Polygonaceae, Santalaceae, etc. (see complete list in Hiepko, 1987). It must be stressed that it is necessary to check each individual case in the herbarium to be sure whether or not a type was saved. c) A third category of extant material is the group of duplicates of different collections saved in 1943. Among this material many isotypes were found. It includes duplicate specimens of West Indian plants collected by Eggers, Ekman, and Sintenis.

The very important historical Herbarium Willdenow (B-W) was also saved. Besides the types of the numerous species described by Willdenow himself, there is type material of many other species described by his contemporaries. In connection with the Flora of the Greater Antilles the following collectors represented in B-W are of special interest: F. Bredemeyer (180 specimens from Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela, 1785-1788), P.A. Poiteau (140, Haiti, 1796-1801), L.C. Richard (200, Antilles and N-America, 1786-1787), and O. Swartz (500, Haiti etc., 1784-1785). Specimens of the Herbarium Willdenow are not sent on loan, but we provide photographs or xerox-copies; there is a published alphabetical index (Hiepko, 1972) and the herbarium is available on microfiche (IDC 7440). The rebuilding of the general herbarium after World War II was only possible through generous gifts from friendly institutions and botanists from Germany and abroad. Sources of new material from the West Indies were many specimens sent as gifts or in exchange from American herbaria, especially from NY and US, and from the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (S, 270 duplicates leg. Ekman). We received 179 plants from Cuba collected by W.H. Hatheway in 1954 as a gift. In 1993 the herbarium of the Humboldt University in Berlin (BHU) was transferred to the Botanical Museum (B). It includes ca. 23,000 specimens from Cuba, the third set of the "Proyecto Flora de Cuba (PFC)"-series of about 70,000 numbers (in HAJB, JE, and B), originally a joint project of the Jardín Botánico Nacional and the Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, the University of Jena, and the Humboldt University.

References Cited:

Anon. 1934. Bericht über den Botanischen Garten und das Botanische Museum  zu Berlin-Dahlem vom 1. April 1933 bis 31.März 1934. Notizbl. Bot.
Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (111): 1-28.

Hiepko, P. 1972. Herbarium Willdenow - alphabetical index. IDC, Zug.

Hiepko, P. 1978. Die erhaltenen Teile der Sammlungen des Botanischen Museums Berlin-Dahlem (B) aus der Zeit vor 1943. Willdenowia 8:

Hiepko, P. 1987. The collections of the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B) and their history. Englera 7: 219-252.

Howard, R.A. 1965. Ignatius Urban and the "Symbolae Antillanae". Pp. 1-6 in E. Carroll & S. Sutton (compilers), A cumulative index to the nine
volumes of the Symbolae Antillanae seu fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis edited by Ignatius Urban. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain.

Loesener, T. 1931. Ignatius Urban. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 48: (205)-(225).

Urban, I. 1898. Leopold Krug. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 16: 23-37.

Urban, I. 1916. Geschichte des Königlichen Botanischen Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem (1815-1913) nebst Aufzählung seiner Sammlungen. Dresden.
 (Also in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. sect. 1, 34: 1-457. 1917).

2 Fascicle: a bundle of herbarium sheets between two cardboards tied with a strap. At those times the herbarium sheets were kept in that way. It is not easy to estimate the number of sheets included in one bundle. There may have been 80-100 sheets included in one bundle. Urban (1916): 122) mentioned that in 1913 Herb. Krug & Urban was composed of "749 dicke Mappen" (749 thick bundles), thus the collection consisted of 60,000-75,000 sheets. For 1933 (Anon., 1934), about 790 bundles are mentioned; there may have been ca. 80,000 sheets or more (after 1913, ca. 20,000 specimens collected by E. L. Ekman arrived at Berlin).


Upcoming Meetings:

Natural History Collections--a Resource for the Future. Second World Congress on Preservation of Natural History Collections. Sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Great Britain. 20-24 August 1966. Major issues to be discussed at the congress to be held in Cambridge, England: 1. The use and development of collections in industry, research, and education. 2. Accessibility of collections using information technology, data bases, and international data exchange. 3. Current techniques in the care and management of collections. 4. Current condition of collections in the developed and developing countries. 5. The media image of natural history collections. 6. Economic and fund-raising aspects. 7. Strategies for the future including the practical development of the World Council on Collection Resources (WCCR). 8. The development of natural history collections in developing countries as a socio-economic resource. Meeting include discussion sessions and workshops involving every participant of the congress. A poster session is also planned. Limited travel grants may be available for participants from developing countries. For further information contact: The Administrator--World Congress, Dept. Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. Telephone +44 1223 33 34 21. Fax +44 1223 33 34 50.

Second International Symposium on Ornamental Palms and other Monocots from the Tropics. Sponsored by Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA), International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) and Sociedad Española de Ciencias Hortícolas (SECH). 3-6 February 1997. This symposium will facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical information related to biology, production, and use of ornamental palms and tropical monocots (including gingers, Aroids, Bromeliads, Heliconias)and will be held in Tenerife, Islas Canarias, Spain. The sessions will include invited papers, contributed papers and posters. Preliminary registration due 1 Mar 1996. Second announcements to be mailed in April 1996. For information contact: Palm Symposium, ICIA, Apartado 60, La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife, Spain. Fax (34-22) 476303. E-mail: mcaballero@icia.rcanaria.es

Books Available:

Flora of the Lesser Antilles
Richard A. Howard's Flora of the Lesser Antilles is still available from the Arnold Arboretum. The journal Arnoldia (Fall 1995 issue) provided the following information: All 6 volumes are still on sale, either individually or in special combinations. Vol. 1: Orchidaceae ($20); Vol. 2: Pteridophytes ($25); Vol. 3: Monocotyledoneae, other than Orchidaceae ($35); Vol. 4: Dicotyledoneae 1 ($75); Vol. 5: Dicotyledoneae 2 ($85); and Vol. 6: Dicotyledoneae 3 ($85). The individual volumes require the addition of $2 per volume for shipping and handling. The complete set of 6 volumes is available for the special price of $260 (including shipping and handling within the U.S.A.; add $5 for shipping outside the country). The special price for Vols. 4, 5, and 6 is $205. Checks (in U.S. funds) should be made payable to the Arnold Arboretum. Orders should be sent to Ms. Frances Maguire, Arnold Arboretum, 125 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130, U.S.A.

A cumulative index to the nine volumes of the Symbolae Antillanae seu fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis edited by Ignatius Urban compiled by Eileen Carroll and Stephanne Sutton.
The Arnold Arboretum has donated copies of this paper-cover book, with an introduction by Richard A. Howard, published in 1965. We are making the book available for the cost of shipping. The cost depends on the destination and how (book-surface mail or book-air mail) it will be sent. The following schedule indicates the cost:
Book/surface: U.S.A. and Canada $3.00; Europe, Caribbean, Mexico, South America, Asia, and Australia $4.00
Book/air: Canada $5.00; Europe $9.00; Caribbean and South America $7.00; Mexico $6.00; Asia $10.00; Australia $11.00
This volume is a good companion piece to use with Urban's Symbolae Antillanae, because it is a cumulative index to all titles and authors of articles, Latin names, common names, and publication dates for all the volumes. The introduction about Urban and his Caribbean work is the best available (and is reproduced as the lead article in this newsletter). To order the book, send your name and complete mailing address plus the correct shipping costs in US$. Checks should be drawn on a U.S. bank and made payable to The New York Botanical Garden. Otherwise, send U.S. cash. Send your order to T. Zanoni, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A. Since the volume is being offered for only the cost of shipping, only prepaid orders will be filled.

Bibliography of Caribbean Botany. 9.

Thomas A. Zanoni

The eighth part of this bibliographic series on Caribbean plants, plant ecology, and plant taxonomy covering the years 1984 to the present, was published in the Flora of the Greater Antilles Newsletter No. 9, of November 1995.

Authors are requested to send copies of their publications to the editor of the Bibliography for inclusion in future parts of the series. Send publications to:

T. Zanoni
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, New York 10458-5126, U.S.A.


Adjei, M. B. 1995. Component forage yield and quality of grass-legume cropping systems in the Caribbean. Trop. Grasslands 29: 142-149.

Aedo, C. & F. Muñoz Garmendia. 1996. Some notes on the sectional nomenclature of
Geranium (Geraniaceae). Taxon 45: 104-106.

Aide, T. M., J. K. Zimmerman, L. Herrera, M. Rosario, & M. Serrano. 1995. Forest recovery in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecol. Managem. 77: 77-86.

Alonso-Amelot, M. E., S. Radulfo-Baechler, & R. Jaimes-Espinosa. 1995. Comparative dynamics of ptaquiloside and pterosin B in the two varieties (caudatum and arachnoideum) of Neotropical bracken fern (
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 23: 709-716.

Ashurmetrov, O. A. 1995. On the morphology and taxonomy of the genera
Cucumis L. and Melo Mill. Feddes Repert. 106: 155-159.

Austin, D. F. & A. Huáman. 1996. A synopsis of
Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.

Axelius, B. 1996. The phylogenetic relationships of the physaloid genera (Solanaceae) based on morphological data. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 118-124.

Ayode, A. E. & A. O. Pereira-Sheteolu. 1993. [1994.] Variation in fibres and vessel elements of
Delonix regia (Caesalpiniaceae). Biol. Soc. Brot. sér. 2, 66: 153-159.

Barreto Valdés, A. & A. Beyra Matos. 1994. Características de la epidermis foliar de especies cubanas de la subtribú Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Cassieae). Acta Bot. Cubana 107: 1-25.

Bellingham, P. J., E. V. J. Tanner, & J. R. Healey. 1995. Damage and responsiveness of Jamaican montane tree species after disturbance by a hurricane. Ecology 76: 2562-2580.

Beyra Matos, A. 1994. Características epidérmico-foliares de los táxones cubanos del género
Crotolaria (Leguminosae: Faboideae). Acta Bot. Cubana 101: 1-17.

Beyra Matos, A. 1994. Estudio epidérmico-foliar de
Swartzia cubensis (Britt. et Wilson) León (Leguminosae) en Cuba. Acta Bot. Cubana 100: 1-6.

Beyra Matos, A. & A. Barreto Valdés. 1994. Arquitectura foliar de las especies del género
Caesalpinia L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinoideae) en Cuba. Acta Bot. Cubana 105: 1-12.

Beyra Matos, A. & A. Barreto Valdés. 1994. Consideraciones epidérmico-foliares sobre la tribú Caesalpinieae
(Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) en Cuba. acta Bot. Cubana 102: 1-10.

Beyra Matos, A. & A. Barreto Valdés. 1994. Consideraciones sobre la arquitectura foliar de especies de
Bauhinia L.
(Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Acta Bot. Cubana 99: 1-8.

Beyra Matos, A. & A. Cárdenas Alvarez. 1994. Consideraciones epidérmico-foliares sobre los táxones cubanos de la familia Simaroubaceae. Acta Bot. Cubana 103: 1-16.

Bohs, L. 1995. Transfer of
Cyphomandra (Solanaceae) and its species to Solanum. Taxon 44: 583-587.

Bratoeff, E. A. & M. C. Pérez-Amador, 1994. Phytochemical study of
Typha domingensis Pers. (Typhaceae). Phyton 55: 71-75.

Braun, P. & B. Braun. 1995. Erinnerungen an die Granadien
Melocactus broadwayi auf Mayreau. Kakt. Sukkul. 46: 211-214.

Brussell, D. E. 1995. Potions, poisons, and panaceas: An ethnobotanical study of Montserrat. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale, Illinois. 208 pp. [paperback and hardcover editions.]

Cantrell, S. A. & C. Betancourt. 1995.
Fusarium spp. in rearing ponds of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Puerto Rico: water and air sampling . Caribb. J. Bot. 31: 230-236.

Cardiel, J. M. 1995. Cristales foliares en
Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 53: 181-189.

Cárdenas, A., A. Beyra, F. Cejas, & E. Pouyú. 1994. El género
Castela Turpin (Simaroubaceae) en Cuba. Acta Bot. Cubana 98: 1-20.

Carrington, S. 1996. Basic botany, Barbados style. Wildflower (Toronto) 12 (1): 39-41.

Castañeda Ruíz, R. F. 1986. Deuteromycotina de Cuba. Hyphomycetes IV. Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales de Agricultura Tropical "Alejandro de Humboldt": Habana, Cuba. 17 pp.

Castañeda Ruíz, R. F., J. Guarro, & J. Cano. 1996. Notes on conidial fungi. III. An interesting species of
Polyschema from Cuba. Mycotaxon 57: 451-456.

Castañeda Ruíz, R. F., J. Guarro, & J. Cano. 1996. Notes on conidial fungi. IV.
Hyalopleiochaeta anam. gen. nov. and some notes on Pleiochaeta. Mycotaxon 57: 457-462.

Castañeda Ruíz, R. F., J. Guarro, & J. Cano. 1996. Notes on conidial fungi. V. Two new dermatiaceus Hyphomycetes from Cuba. Mycotaxon 57: 463-469.

Castañeda Ruíz, R. F. & B. Kendrick. 1991. Ninety-nine conidial fungi from Cuba and three from Canada. Univ. Waterloo Biol. Ser. 35: 1-132.

Churchill, S. P., H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995. Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Conti, E., A. Litt, & K. J. Sytsma. 1996. Circumscription of Myrtales and their relationships to other Rosids: evidence from rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 221-233.

Crane, E. H., D. R. Farrar, & J. F. Wendel. 1995 [1996]. Phylogeny of the Vittariaceae: convergent simplification leads to a polyphyletic
Vittaria. Amer. Fern. J. 85: 283-305.

Crawford, D. J. & E. Landolt. 1995. Allozyme divergence among species of
Wolffia (Lemnaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 59-69.

Crespo, M. B., L. Serra, & N. Turland. 1996. Lectotypification of four names in
Lobelia (Lobeliaceae). Taxon 45: 117-120.

Croat, T. B. 1994 [1995]. Taxonomic status of Neotropical Araceae. Aroideana 17: 33-60 [Correction on journal name.]

Dalling, J. W. 1995. The effect of litter and soil disturbance on seed germination in the upper montane rain forest, Jamaica. Caribb. J. Sci. 223-229.

De Laet, J., D. Clinckemaillie, S. Jansen, & E. Smets. 1995. Floral ontogeny in the Plumbaginaceae. J. Pl. Res. 108: 289-304.

Desender-Bruneel, M. 1995.
Melocactus holguinensis en Melocactus guitartii op Cuba. Succulenta 74: 259-262.

Dinerstein, E., D. M. Olson, D. J. Graham, A. L. Webster, S. A. Primm, M. P. Bookbinder, & G. Ledec. 1995. A conservation assessment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. Published in association with The World Wildlife Fund. The World Bank: Washington,, D.C. xviii, 129 pp., Maps 1-9, and one unnumbered map inserted in back cover.

Downie, S. R. & D. S. Katz-Downie. 1996. A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 234-251.

Dressler, R. L., G. A. Salazar, & C. J. García-Cruz. 1992.
Jacquiniella gigantea (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae), a new species from Mexico and Guatemala. Orquídea (México) 12: 145-150 [See key to all species of Jacquiniella.]

Durán, R. 1995.
Pseudophoenix sargentii: an endangered palm species. Principes 39: 219-224. [The populations of the species in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.]

Eguiarte, L. E. 1995. Hutchinson (Agavales) vs. Huger y Dahlgren (Asparagales): ánalisis moleculares sobre la filogenia y evolución de la familia Agavaceae sensu Hutchinson dentro de la Monocotilidóneas. Bol. Soc. Bot. México 56: 45-56.

Fernández, D. S. & R. W. Myster. 1995. Temporal variation and frequency distribution of photosynthetic photon flux densities on landslides in Puerto Rico. Trop. Ecol. 36: 73-87.

Fjellstrom, R. G. & D. E. Parfitt. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis and evolution of the genus Juglans (Juglandaceae) as determined from nuclear genome RFLPs. Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 19-32.

Francis, J. K. & A. Rodríguez. 1993. Seeds of Puerto Rican trees and shrubs: Second installment. U.S. Dept. Agric. Forest Serv. Res. Note SO-374: 1-5. [Native and exotic species.]

Frey, R. 1995.
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Martius ex Choisy) Austin: Taxonomy, biology and ecology reviewed and inquired. Trop. Ecol. 36: 21-48.

Frodin, D. G. 1995. Neotropical montane Araliaceae: An overview, pp. 421-431 in S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995, Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Furness, C. A. 1994. The pollen morphology of
Hygrophila and Brillantaisia (Acanthaceae: Ruellieae). Acta Bot. Gallica 141: 267-278.

Gastony, G. J. & D. R. Rollo. 1995 [1996.] Phylogeny and generic circumscriptions of Cheilanthoid ferns (Pteridaceae: Cheilanthoideae): Inferred from rbcL nucleotide sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 341-360.

Gloudon, A. & C. Tobisch. 1995. Orchids of Jamaica. The Press, University of the West Indies: Mona, Kingston, Jamaica. 254 pp.

Gómez Acosta, H. D. 1992.
Dictyothyrium Theissen (Micropeltaceae, Ascomycotina), un nuevo reporte para Cuba. Rev. Jard. Bot. Nac. [La Habana, Cuba] 13: 77-79.

Gómez Acosta, H. D. 1992.
Micropeltis samarensis Sydow y Micropeltis depressa Cooke et Massee, dos nuevos reportes para Cuba. Rev. Jard. Bot. Nac. [La Habana, Cuba] 13: 81-82.

Hágsater, E. 1992. Nuevas especies del complejo
Epidendrum modestiflorum de Costa Rica y Panama. Orquídea (México) 12: 281-295.

Hallingbäck, T., N. Hodgetts, & E. Urmi. 1995. How to apply the new IUCN Red List categories to Bryophytes. Species 24: 37-41.

Harris, S. A. 1995. Systematics and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in the genus
Leucaena (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 195-208.

Hart, H. & U. Eggli (eds.). 1995. Evolution and systematics of the Crassulaceae. Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands. 192 pp.

Haufler, C. H. & T. A. Ranker. 1995 [1996]. RbcL sequences provide phylogenetic insights among sister species of the fern genus
Polypodium. Amer. Fern J. 85: 361-374.

Hauk, W. D. 1996. A molecular assessment of relationships among cryptic species of
Botrychium subgenus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Amer. Fern. J. 85: 375-394.

Heo, K. & H. Tobe. 1995. Embryology and relationships of
Gyrocarpus and Hernandia (Hernandiaceae). J. Pl. Res. 108: 327-341.

Hernández Gutiérrez, A. & J. Mena Portales. 1995. Hifomicetos asociados a
Coccothrinax (Palmae) en diferentes localidades de la provincia de Camagüey (Cuba). Bol. Soc. Micol. Madrid 20: 25-33.

Hernández Gutiérrez, A. & J. Mena Portales. 1995. Nuevos registros de Hifomicetos sobre
Roystonea regia en Cuba. Bol. Soc. Micol. Madrid 20: 15-23.

Hernández Sandoval, L. 1995. Análisis cladístico de la familia Agavaceae. Bol. Soc. Bot. México 56: 57-68.

Hilu, K. W. & H. T. Stalker. 1995. Genetic relationships between peanut and wild species of
Arachis sect. Arachis (Fabaceae): Evidence from RAPDs. Pl. Syst. Evol. 198: 167-178.

Hodel, D. R. 1995.
Coccothrinax. Palm J. 125: 15-18.

Honychurch, P. 1995. Flora of Dominica. Wildflower (Ontario) 11(4): 40-42.

Hsiao, L.-C. & C.-S. Kuoh. 1995. Pollen morphology of the
Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania 40: 299-316.

Judd, W. S., V. T. Salzman, & J. D. Skean, Jr. 1995. Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae). VII.
Miconia howardiana, a new species from Hispaniola. Brittonia 47: 414-421.

Kalb, K. 1995.
Thelenella follmannii sp. nov. (Thelenellaceae), eine neue corticole Flechten-Art aus Jamaica (Westindien), pp. 249-253 in F. J. A. Daniels, M. Schulz, & J. Peine (eds.), Flechten Follmann: Contributions to Lichenology in honour of Gerhard Follman. Geobotanical and Phytotaxonomical Study Group, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne: Cologne, Germany.

Kallunki, J. A. 1995. Collections from the Gettysburg College Herbarium now deposited at The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Brittonia 47: 432.

Kannabiran, B. & A. Pragasam. 1994. Foliar epidermal features of Vitaceae and taxonomic position of
Leea. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 73: 81-87.

Kraybill, A. A. & C. E. Martin. 1996. Crassulacean acid metabolism in three species of the C4 genus
Portulaca. Intern. J. Pl. Sci. 157: 103-109.

Kuenen, M. M. C. E. & A. O. Debrot. 1995. A quantitative study of the seagrass and algal meadows of the Spaanse Water, Curaçao, The Netherlands Antilles. Aquat. Bot. 51: 291-310.

LeDuc, A. A revision of
Mirabilis section Mirabilis (Nyctaginaceae). Sida 16: 613-648.

Liede, S. & F. Weberling. 1995. On the inflorescence structure of Ascelpiadaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 99-109.

Lin Qi. 1995. [The geographical distribution of the family Illiciaceae.] J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 3(3): 1-11. [In Chinese.]

Lira Saade, R. 1995. Estudios taxonómicos y ecogeográficos de la Cucurbitaceae latinoamericanas de importancia econónica. Systematic and Ecogeographic Studies of Crop Genepools 9. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute: Rome, Italy. xiv, 1-281.

Liu Yuhu, Xia Nianhe, & Yang Huiqiu. 1995. [The origin, evolution and phytogeography of Magnoliaceae.] J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 3(4): 1-12. [In Chinese.]

Lourteig, A. 1994 [1995]. Oxalis L. subgénero
Thamnoxys (Endl.) Reiche emend. Lourt. Bradea 7(1): 1-199.

Luer, C. A. 1995. Icones Pleurothallidinarum XII. Systematics of
Brachionidium. Addenda to Dresslerella, Platystele and Porroglossum. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 1-146.

Lugo-López, M. A. & F. Abruña. 1995. Magnitude of soil losses throughout the Caribbean. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 79: 89-90.

Manicaccim D. & S. C. H. Barrett. 1995. Stamen elongation, pollen size, and siring ability in tristylous
Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 82: 1381-1389.

McCourt, R. M., K. G. Karol, M. Guerlesquin, & M. Feist. 1996. Phylogeny of extant genera in the family Characeae (Charales, Charophyceae) based on rbcL sequences and morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 125-131.

Mercado Sierra, A. & J. Mena Portales. 1995. Hifomicetes dematiáceos de tres provincias orientales en Cuba. Revista Iberoamer. Micol. 12: 101-107.

Molvray, M. & P. J. Kores. 1995. Character analysis of the seed coat in Spiranthoideae and Orchidoideae, with special reference to the Diurideae (Orchidaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 82: 1443-1454.

Moran, R. C. 1995. The importance of mountains to pteridophytes, with emphasis on neotropical montane forests, pp. 359-363 in S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995, Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Noba, K., P. I. Samb, & A. T. Ba. 1994. Sur quelques caractères macro et micromorphologiques de jeune plant dans la systematique de trois espèces du genre
Boerhavia L. (Nyctaginaceae). Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire Sér. A, 47: 51-62.

Oginuma, K. & H. Tobe. 1995. Karyomorphology of some Moraceae and Cecropiaceae (Urticales). J. Pl. Res. 108: 313-326.

Øllgaard, B. 1995. Diversity of Huperzia (Lycopodiaceae) in neotropical montane forests, pp. 349-358 in S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995, Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Owens, S. J., C. Prychid, & A. V. Cox. 1995. Structure and development of the stigma, style and ovary of
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw., post-anthesis, pre- and post-pollination. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 118: 275-288.

Parresol, B. R. 1995. Basal area growth for 15 tropical tree species in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecol. Managem. 73: 211-219.

Paul, A. & P. A. Cox. 1995. An ethnobotanical survey of the uses of
Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae) in Haiti. Econ. Bot. 49: 249-256.

Petit, S. 1995. The pollinators of two species of columnar cacti on Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Biotropica 27: 538-541.

Rashford, J. H. 1995. The past and present uses of bamboo in Jamaica. Econ. Bot. 49: 395-405.

Ray, G. J. & B. Brown. 1995. The structure of five successional stands in a subtropical dry forest, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Caribb. J. Sci. 31: 212-222.

Ray, M. F. 1995. Systematics of
Lavatera and Malva (Malvaceae, Malveae) - a new perspective. Pl. Syst. Evol. 198: 29-53.

Ryding, O. 1995. Pericarp structure and phylogeny of the Lamiaceae-Verbenaceae-complex. Pl. Syst. Evol. 198: 101-141.

Salzman, V. T. & W. S. Judd. 1995. A revision of the Greater Antillean species of
Bactris (Bactridinae: Arecaceae). Brittonia 47: 345-371.

Sastre-D. J., I. & B. Tan. 1995. Problems in bryophyte conservation in the tropics: a discussion with case example from Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Caribb. J. Sci. 31: 200-206.

Shneyer, V. S., G. P. Borschtschenko, & M. G. Pimeov. 1995. Immunochemical appraisal of relationships within the tribe Peucedaneae (Apiaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 198: 1-16.

Smith, D. L. & R. C. Scott. 1995. Cotyledon venation patterns in the Leguminosae: Mimosoideae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 1991: 213-243.

Suarez-Cervera, M., J. Marquez, J. Martin, J. Molero, & J. Seoane-Camba. 1995. Structure of the aperture sporoderm of pollen grains in
Euphorbia and Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 111-122.

Tadesse, M., D. J. Crawford, & E. B. Smith. 1995. New synonyms in
Coreopsis L. and notes on C. sect. Pseudoagarista (Compositae-Heliantheae). Compositae Newsl. 27: 11-30.

Tirado, G. & M. A. Lugo-López. 1984. Erosion on the hillsides of the Dominican Republic. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 68: 117-119.

Tobe, H. & M. Takahashi. 1995. Pollen morphology of Gyrostemonaceae, Bataceae, and Koberlinia. J. Pl. Res. 108: 283-288.

Trehane, P., C. D. Rickell, B. R. Baum, W. L. A. Hetterscheid, A. C. Leslie, J. McNeill, S. A. Spongberg, & F. Vrugtman. 1995 [1996]. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants--1995, (ICNCP or Cultivated Plant Code). Adopted by the International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants. Regnum Vegetabile 131: xvi, 1-175. Quarterjack Publishing: Wimborne, England.

Tsou, C.-H. 1994. The embryology, reproductive morphology, and systematics of Lecythidaceae. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 71: 1-110.

Vanzella-Khouri, A. 1995. Regional program on specially protected areas and wildlife for the wider Caribbean. Species 24: 42-45.

Vincent, M. A. 1995.Creeping indigo (
Indigofera spicata Forssk.; Fabaceae): New to the Bahamas. Bahamas J. Sci. 3(1): 36.

Wahab, A. H., M. A. Lugo-López, & G. Acevedo. 1987. Soil erosion in southwestern Haiti. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 71: 239-240.

Wahab, A. H., M. A. Lugo-López, B. M. Woo, F. Rosales, & J. Dehaney. 1985. Alternatives to bench terraces on the hillsides of Jamaica: I. Soil losses. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 69: 255-264.

Webster, G. l. 1995. The panorama of neotropical cloud forests, pp. 53-77 in S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995, Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Weitzman, A. L. 1995. Diversity of Theaceae and Bonnetiaceae in the montane neotropics, pp. 365-375 in S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J. L. Luteyn (eds.) 1995, Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden: Bronx, N.Y. xiv, 702 pp.

Wier, A. M., M. A. Schnitzler, T. A. Tattar, E. J. Klekowski, Jr., & A. I. Stern. 1996. Wound periderm development in red mangrove,
Rhizophora mangle L. Intern. J. Pl. Sci. 157: 63-70.

Wolf, P. G. 1995 [1996]. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL and nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences in Dennstaedtiaceae. Amer. Fern. J. 85: 306-327.

Ye Xiuzhen, Xu Xiangming, Li Yuxiang, Zhang Deming, & Guo Lirong. 1995. [Study of the characteristics of vegetative organs of
Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze and Axonopus compressus (Swartz) Beauv.] J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 3(3): 50-55. [In Chinese.]

Zanoni, T. A. & R. G. García G. 1995. Notes on the flora of Hispaniola. Annals Carnegie Mus. 64: 255-265.

Zappi, D. C., J. Semir, & N. I. Pierozzi. 1995.
Genipa infundibuliformis sp. nov. and notes on Genipa americana (Rubiaceae). Kew Bull. 50: 761-771.

Flora of the Greater Antilles Newsletter is published by The New York Botanical Garden with support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. For information or to send notices for future issues, please contact Thomas A. Zanoni or William R. Buck, Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A. E-mail: tzanoni@nybg.org or bbuck@nybg.org.

The Flora of the Greater Antilles Newsletter is copyrighted by The New York Botanical Garden.