Checklist & Formatting Instructions
** For guidance on format, please consult example PDFs that are found throughout the checklist. Please check each box as you format your manuscript **
List of example PDFs
Conditions of publication
What and where to submit manuscripts
Printable PDF of this Checklist
- Manuscripts may be in Spanish or English.
- Manuscripts should not exceed 50 printed pages (including tables, figure legends, literature cited, and appendices).
- Print manuscript on 8.5" by 11" (21.5 by 28 cm) (or A4) paper with at least 1" (2.5 cm) margins on all sides. Use only one side of the paper; do not make double-sided photocopies.
- Use Times New Roman, 12pt font, for all text (including tables, figure legends, literature cited, and appendices).
- Double-space throughout.
- Do not use justified right margin.
- Include page numbers and surname of first author as a header or footer on all manuscript pages.
- Assemble manuscript in this order: 1) Title, 2) Abstract, 3) Text, 4) Acknowledgments, 5) Literature Cited, 6) Tables, 7) Appendices, 8) Figure legends, and 9) Figures.
- Newly described taxa should be illustrated, preferably by line drawings.
- Do not italicize common Latin words, phrases, or abbreviations (e.g., et al., i.e., sensu, etc.).
Title, Abstract, and Key Words
CONSULT EXAMPLE 1
- Title should be flush left at the top of the first page. The first word following a colon should be capitalized. Text should be in upper- and lowercase.
- Scientific names should not be in italics and should not be boldface.
- Author names should be flush left directly below the title.
- Author names should be in LARGE AND SMALL CAPITALS. Names should not be boldface.
- Use a superscript number after author's name to indicate any current address different from that in abstract. Or indicate, by superscript number, the author for correspondence.
- Surname and first name must be included and spelled out. (Middle names are optional and, if included, can be abbreviated.)
- Abstract should be brief, but include statements about the paper's intent, approach, results, and significance of findings.
- Abstract should be one paragraph in the following form:
Primary author’s last name and initials (Institution, Street, City, State, Postal Code, Country; e-mail: address) and Second author's initials and last name (Institution, etc.). Title of paper. Brittonia 00: 000–000. 200X. Text of abstract.
- All articles must have an English abstract; optional abstract in second language should follow in separate paragraph using same format (do not translate title).
- Reference citations, taxonomic authorities, and abbreviations should not be used.
- Indicate all new taxonomic names in boldface (not in italics), including any new combinations.
- Indicate all newly designated lecto- and neotypifications in boldface.
- First line of abstract should be indented.
- Do not enclose abstract in a box or include lines above and below.
- Give up to 6 key words in alphabetical sequence. Key words should start on the line below the abstract (or below the first abstract if there are two).
- Begin on a new page.
- Introductory text should not have a heading.
- Main headings are centered and in boldface on a separate line. Only the first letter is capitalized.
- Second level headings are flush left in LARGE AND SMALL CAPITALS on a separate line.
- Third level headings are in italics and are followed by a dash, on the same line.
- All figures and tables must be cited in the text and must be cited consecutively in numerical order.
- Each reference cited in the text must be listed in Literature Cited section, and vice versa.
- Cite literature in the text as follows:
1. One author: Mori (2005) or (Mori, 2005).
2. Two authors: Mori and Boom (2005) or (Mori & Boom, 2005).
3. More than two authors: Mori et al. (2005) or (Mori et al., 2005).
4. Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Mori (in press) or (Mori, in press).
5. Unpublished materials: S. Mori (unpubl. data) or (S. Mori, pers. comm.).
6. Within parentheses, use a semicolon to separate different citations (Boom, 1991; Mori, 1991), and cite a series of references in chronological order.
7. Use a, b, c, and so forth, for two or more papers by same author(s) in one year (e.g., Mori, 1990a, 1990b; Boom, 1985b).
- Write out uncommon abbreviations the first time they are used in the text, e.g., The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).
- Please consult the link for standard Brittonia Abbreviations. These abbreviations generally are used in nomenclatural text, descriptions, and specimen citations.
- Abbreviate units of distance and size measurements without a period throughout the text (e.g., km, mm, ft, mi)
- Use Authors of Plant Names (1992, by R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) for abbreviations of author names throughout the manuscript. Cite authors of all names at rank of genus and below where first used in text, or when names are in a table.
- Italicize all scientific names at the generic level or below.
- Spell out the genus name the first time it is used in a new paragraph. (Never begin a sentence with an abbreviated scientific name.)
- Do not use footnotes.
- Numbers. Spell out one through nine, unless it is a measurement or in a description. Use a comma with more than four digits (1000 but 10,000); 0.5 instead of .5; % instead of percent. Use 8–8.5 and not 8.0–8.5.
- Ranges (e.g., measurements, percentages) given in general text should be separated by the word “to.” Numbers should always be followed by a unit of measurement. For example, “Megaspores ranged in diameter from 620 μm to 1020 μm”
- Terms in biological chemistry should follow these sources: a) the instructions to authors of the Biochemical Journal or the notes given at the beginning of each number of the Journal of Biological Chemistry; b) the IUPAC rules on biological chemistry nomenclature. Where there is any difference in the recommendations, the editors will follow the latest publication.
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT AND SYNONYMY
- Names of accepted taxa (new or otherwise), when used as headings in a treatment, should be in boldface. Names of synonyms are italicized.
- For nomenclatural text (i.e., synonymy and typification), use one paragraph per homotypic basionym. Heterotypic basionyms are in separate paragraphs. Paragraphs should be formatted using a hanging indent.
- The following designations should be in boldface: sp. nov., comb. nov., hybrid nov., etc… (for all new taxa and new combinations).
- For each new species description, the protologue must include a diagnosis in Latin and/or short description of essential characters in Latin, not a long translation in Latin of the English description.
- Latin description should be placed in a paragraph below homotypic synonyms.
- Latin descriptions should not be in italics. Latin names within the description should be in italics.
- It is assumed that authors have examined all types cited. In type citations, indicate the duplicates that you have not seen with "n.v." Do not use "!" for duplicates you have seen. Include initials of collectors of type specimens.
- When designating a lectotype (or neotype) in your manuscript, use the following format after the specimen citation: (lectotype, here designated: NY). If citing a lectotype (or neotype) previously designated, use the following format: (lectotype, designated by Mori, 1991: NY) and add this citation to the Literature Cited.
- Use Index Herbariorum (http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp) for herbarium acronyms. It is not necessary to cite this publication.
- Journal titles should be abbreviated using BPH-2 (Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum, second addition. 2004. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation.) or an earlier version (1968 and 1991).
- Book titles should be abbreviated using Taxonomic Literature, second edition.
- References cited within nomenclatural text are not included in literature cited section (unless they are cited within the general text).
- Collectors and collection numbers should be in italics.
DESCRIPTIONS & KEYS
CONSULT EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTION
- Descriptions of taxa should be parallel, i.e., the same structures are described in the same order and punctuated consistently.
- Within descriptions, the conventional order of characters from base to apex should be followed. For the plant the general order is from habit through roots, rhizomes or other underground organs, stems, leaves, inflorescences, bracts, flowers, fruits, seeds, seedlings. For flowers the order is from general characters through calyx characters, corolla characters, androecium characters, gynoecium characters.
- The description of a taxon may be followed by the following paragraphs in the following order: 1) Distribution or Distribution and Ecology, 2) Phenology, 3) Etymology. These headings should be indented on the same line as the initial text. The headings should be in italics and followed by a dash.
- General discussion should be placed after the specimens examined section.
- Keys should be dichotomous and indented. Couplets should be numbered, not lettered, and the numbers followed by periods. Authors of taxa are generally not included in keys. Species are not numbered in the key unless they are not presented in alphabetical sequence in the taxonomic treatment..
- All measurements and descriptive information provided in the key must match the information in the descriptions.
- Consult the following link for Geographic sequence: Geographic Sequence in Citation the of Herbarium Specimens.
- Specimens examined are grouped in a separate paragraph beginning with: “Additional specimens examined.” For new species do not use “Paratypes.” Citation of all specimens seen by an author is appropriate unless such a list is unduly long and repetitive, in which case “Selected specimens examined.” is used. In revisionary studies, a common widespread taxon should be treated by the citation of selected specimens that document the morphological and geographical ranges of the taxon. It is especially useful to cite specimens that were treated differently in earlier publications, that are widely accessible in major herbaria, or that are of historical value.
- Specimen citations should include locality, latitude and longitude when available, elevation, collection date, collector (“et al.” when more than two), collector’s number, and herbarium(a) of deposit. Label data such as flower color are better given in descriptions. Provide locality data without translation. Countries are cited from north to south; political subdivisions are in alphabetical order within countries; and collectors are in alphabetical order within subdivisions. Initials of collectors are not used in “Additional specimens examined” (unless confusion would be caused by two or more collectors with the same last name).
- Use the following format (font, punctuation, data sequence, abbreviated compass directions, elevation, and spacing in coordinates) for citation of specimens:
Additional specimens examined. VENEZUELA. AMAZONAS: Cucurital de Caname, 03°40'N, 67°22'W, 100 m, 30 Apr 1979, Davidse et al. 16977 (MO); Río Cunucunuma, 03°37'N, 65°51'W, Apr 1990, Fernández 7825 (NY), 5 Nov 1984, Guánchez 3230 (NY).
- Each country begins a new paragraph; specimens from the same locality are separated by commas, as in the example above.
- If there are illustrations by an individual other than the author, the author must thank the illustrator in the Acknowledgments section.
- Authors should thank manuscript reviewers.
- Verify all entries against sources, especially journal titles, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English.
- List works by the same author(s) chronologically, beginning with earliest date of publication.
- Cite references in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. (Multiauthored references are listed in alphabetical order of authors.)
- Cite references by a single author before multiauthored references by same author.
- Multiauthored references with two authors should be listed before other multiauthored references with 3 or more authors.
- Use a long dash when the authors are the same as in the immediately preceding citation.
- “In press” citations must have been accepted for publication; give name of journal or publisher.
- Insert a space after each initial of an author's name, following volume numbers, and between the colon following volume number and page numbers.
- Write journal names and book titles in full, without abbreviation.
- Titles of books are written in lower case except the first word and proper nouns and as required in original language of titles.
- Consult examples of literature cited.
- Each table must start on a separate page and must be double-spaced. Use legal-size paper if necessary to allow adequate margins. Tables can be printed landscape or portrait. Do not reduce type size of tables. If necessary, continue table on additional pages.
- Tables can be prepared to be printed 1- or 2-column width; plan accordingly.
- The title of the table should be centered, and on a separate line above, the word “Table” with a roman numeral should be centered.
- Superscripts referring to footnotes should be lowercase letters, not numbers.
- Footnotes should be placed as a separate paragraph at end of table.
- Data in tables should match perfectly those in text and keys.
- References cited in tables must be included in the Literature Cited.
- Begin on a new page.
- Double-space the legends and group them according to figure arrangements. Do not use a separate page for each group.
- Number figures consecutively with arabic numerals.
- Type legends in paragraph format, e.g.:
FIG. 1. Topobea intricata. A. Habit. B. Representative leaves (abaxial surfaces) from one node. C. Floral peduncle, floral bracts, and young fruiting hypanthium. D. Outer floral bract. E. Inner floral bract. F. Petal. G. Representative stamens, profile view (left) and 3/4 dorsal view (right). H. Seeds. (From the holotype.)
FIG. 2. Oenocarpus circumtextus. A. Habit. B. Inflorescence (Bernal 323, NY).
FIG. 3. Solanum morii. A. Habit. B. Fruit (Prévost 32, NY).
- Italicize collector’s name and number.
- The specimen(s) on which the illustrations are based must be noted.
- Do not include non-alphanumeric symbols (lines, dots, stars, etc.) in legends; label them on the figure itself or refer to them by name in the legend.
Preparation of Figures
- Authors may submit high-quality originals (photographic halftones, line art, or graphs) or digital art. All illustrations must be of professional quality; flaws will not be corrected.
- Digital illustrations submitted with the final version of a manuscript must be in .tiff format. (Authors should submit .jpg files during the review process.)
- Halftones must be scanned at 300 ppi; line art 1200 ppi.
- The final size of a figure (see below) must have the ppi mentioned above.
- Length of an illustration or plate as published is 8" (203 mm). Allow space in that 8" for the printed caption to appear below the figure.
- Two widths are possible as published: 1-column is 2.5" (62 mm); full page is 5.5"(138 mm).
- All original artwork must be signed.
- When preparing composite illustrations, do not space between the components, and do not combine photographs and line art. Place numbers and/or letters on the illustration itself, not in the margins.
- Magnifications must be indicated by means of scale bars placed directly on the illustrations. Magnifications in the figure legend are not acceptable.
- Parts of a plate are labeled A, B, C, etc.
- Maps should have a border, an indication of latitude and longitude, and should not have an undue amount of unused area.
- Consult with the Editor regarding the cost of color photographs. Color must be submitted in CYMK format.
- If illustrations cannot be submitted as digital images, send originals, glossy photographs, or high-quality photostats (PMTs), no larger than 8½ × 14 inches, including a 1 inch margin on all sides. All illustrations must have a protective cover and the author(s) name(s) and figure number on the back. Mount composite illustrations on white cardboard. Ship all illustrations flat.
- It is the expectation of the editors and publisher that authors will make the data underlying published articles available. Any impediments to data sharing should be brought to the attention of the editors at the time of submission.
- Papers in disciplines such as anatomy, ethnobotany, cytology, phytochemistry, and molecular systematics must cite voucher specimens.
- DNA, RNA, or protein sequences corresponding to >50 nucleotides and not provided in the text of manuscripts must be archived in an appropriate data bank, preferably GenBank. The data bank accession numbers for these sequences must be provided in the final revised version of the manuscript.
What and Where to Submit
Authors have a choice of paper submission or electronic submission of manuscripts. Electronic submission is preferred.
HARDCOPY SUBMISSION (INITIAL SUBMISSION)
- Four copies of manuscript and four copies of illustrations (clearly labeled). Copies of half tones must be photographic reproductions, not photocopies.
- Cover letter. This should include any special instructions, change of address during the next several months, and phone, fax, and e-mail numbers for the corresponding author. Indicate which author of a multiauthored paper (if not the first) should receive the proofs and bill, if any.
- Enclose this checklist with the items checked.
- Enclose the transmittal form.
ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION (INITIAL SUBMISSION)
- Submit entire manuscript, with figures, as a single Word file.
- Figures should be submitted as .jpg files embedded within the manuscript.
- Please limit size of e-mail and attachments to less than 2MB. Larger files may not be received.
- Cover letter should include any special instructions, change of address during the next several months, and phone, fax, and e-mail numbers for the corresponding author. Indicate which author of a multiauthored paper (if not the first) should receive the proofs and bill, if any.
- Completed checklist and transmittal form.
- Please inquire if receipt of manuscript is not acknowledged within one week.
SUBMISSION OF REVISED MANUSCRIPT
- Final revised manuscript is submitted to the Associate Editor handling the project.
- Submission of paper copy is optional.
- A file containing all manuscript text (MS Word preferred, WordPerfect acceptable).
- Figures in .tiff file format. Images must be formatted for a PC computer. See “Preparation of figures” for quality requirements.
- Figures will likely be too large to transmit by email. They should be submitted on CD or via FTP.
|Lawrence M. Kelly, Ph.D.
| Editor-in-Chief, Brittonia
The New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, NY 10458
|e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org*
*Please submit to both email addresses.
Phone: (718) 817-8171
Fax: (718) 817-8101