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Douglas C. Daly

B. A. Krukoff Curator of Amazonian Botany, Institute of Systematic Botany

Ph.D., City University of New York


Burseraceae (frankincense family)


systematics of Burseraceae; floristics of Amazonia; leaf architecture

Research locations

Neotropics (especially Amazonian Brazil), Mexico, Madagascar, New Guinea, Vietnam

Research Projects

Applications of Leaf Architecture in Systematics and Forest Management

The ‘sexual system’ developed by Linnaeus for classifying flowering plants was based on the number of stamens and ovary parts, and the classification as well as descriptions of flowering plants are still very much based on flowers and fruits. The fact is that leaves constitute an extremely rich and woefully underutilized source of characters for describing as well as distinguishing or linking flowering plants.

For those who study species-rich tropical forests, where at any given time the vast majority of tree individuals and species have neither flowers nor fruits, leaves represent a hitherto untapped resource for aiding tree identification. This is of extreme importance when it comes to the forest inventories that determine which and how much timber may be harvested without endangering populations of tree species.

I first became interested in “leaf architecture,” which is mostly about vein patterns, when I realized I could recognize species and even groups of related species, but I didn’t have to vocabulary to explain how I recognized them.  Around 2003, I joined the Leaf Architecture Working Group, based mostly at Yale, and in 2009 we jointly authored the Manual of Leaf Architecture, which was the first complete and completely illustrated manual for full descriptions of the leaves of dicotyledonous plants.

Since then I have used this invaluable toolkit in taxonomic research papers on and identification keys to the fruit tree genus Spondias (Anacardiaceae), the 33 species of the Burseraceae genus Canarium in Madagascar, and a number of other Burseraceae, including an upcoming revision of the 21 species of Protium section Icicopsis.  With a high school intern, I have developed an interactive, image-driven key to the 106 species of Protium native to the Brazilian Amazon that includes a number of leaf characters; I have worked with collaborator Dr. Flávio Obermüller on a another key using the same software for 97 species of Amazonian timber trees.  Both keys use a number of leaf characters.

One long-term project that NYBG honorary curator John Mitchell, Dr. Laura Calvillo of UNAM in Mexico City, and Dr. Alejandra Vasco of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas and I have been conducting is an annotated atlas of the leaves of Burseraceae and the related family Anacardiaceae.  Together we have cleared, stained, and imaged leaves of almost 300 species of the two families, and characterized each for more than 70 leaf characters. The descriptions, images, and interpretive essays will soon be posted on the NYBG Web site.

In my work on forest management in Amazonia, we are training tree identifiers who perform the field identifications for forest inventories, and we are developing field guides for distinguishing easily-confused species; leaf characters figure prominently in these efforts.

Floristic Exploration in Southwestern Amazonia

I worked on documenting the flora of the state of Acre  in Amazonian Brazil over a period of 25 years, culminating in the 2008 publication of the First Catalogue of the Flora of Acre, Brazil, indeed the first such documentation of an Amazonian state.  The Catalogue documented 4000 species of plants and included a botanical history of the state and analyses of biogeography, common names, and contributions to conservation.

A natural outgrowth of the Acre project was a geographical expansion that embraces all of the Southwestern Amazon, a distinctive flora that includes parts of Amazonian Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The Acre team and I developed a consortium of herbaria based in Southwestern Amazonia that shares data and specimens and conducts joint workshops.

Within the SW Amazon initiative, I am concentrating my efforts on the state of Rondônia, Brazil, which has a dramatically different geology and flora.  There, I have replicated the Acre program, that is, partnering with the federal university there (UNIR) and investing in training, institution-building, scientific exchange, and of course botanical exploration and collecting throughout the state.  Rondônia is quite a contrast to Acre in that it has many transitions to the cerrado (savanna woodland) vegetation characteristic of Central Brazil, as well as large areas of white-sand formations and two low mountain ranges that are virtually unexplored.

In order to call more attention to Rondônia, I edited a collection of articles about various aspects of its flora, including botanical history, characterization of vegetation types, and new species, which was published together in 2017 in NYBG’s systematics journal, Brittonia.  The UNIR team and I are nearing completion of a catalogue of the Rondônia flora patterned on the Acre volume.

Floristic Exploration in Southeast Asia

Some of the most important collections in The New York Botanical Garden herbarium are those from the Philippines that were made in the first part of the 20th Century by E. D. Merrill and A. D. E. Elmer, but in fact Garden researchers been active in tropical Asia continuously for the past several decades. Drs. Christine Padoch and Charles Peters studied natural resource management in East Kalimantan; palm specialist Dr. Andrew Henderson has traveled widely in the region, describing scores of new species; Drs. Peters and Henderson deeply investigated the taxonomy and management of rattans; and Dr. Dennis Stevenson has maintained productive collaborations with botanists in several Asian countries for the study of gymnosperms and cycads.

NYBG curators Dr. Michael Balick and Dr. Greg Plunkett have a long-term project under way in Vanuatu to study the plant, fungal, and cultural diversity of that poorly known island complex; this follows Dr. Balick’s preceding years-long ethnobotanical project in Pohnpei, Micronesia. Dr. Kate Armstrong has been conducting a multi-faceted, long-term, flora-based study of Myanmar that includes direct inputs for conservation initiatives and studies of medicinal plants.

NYBG honorary curator John Mitchell and I have worked on Burseraceae, Anacardiaceae and general flora in Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Brunei. In 2009, the two of us plus former NYBG scientist Dr. Susan Pell conducted a Conservation International-sponsored expedition all the way to Rossel Island at the end of the Louisiade Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. I obtained a grant from the JRS Biodiversity Foundation between 2013-2016 to help modernize Vietnam’s national herbarium in Hanoi and study the flora of Bach Ma National Park.

Something we all have learned in tropical Asia is that the Old World is definitely not old hat. There are many gaps in botanical exploration of tropical Asia, and many of its important plant families have been neglected for many decades.  My observations in the field and some of the major herbaria in SE Asia suggest that there must be at least 35 undescribed species of Burseraceae in Peninsular Malaysia alone Many of us on the NYBG research staff have found that our institutional collaborations and floristic investigations dovetail well with our taxonomic work.

 On the Andaquí Trail: Exploration and Conservation of Colombia’s Eastern Andean Piedmont

Sadly, given the human and financial resources currently devoted to studying the flora of Amazonia, it is impossible to study all of it at once, so NYBG scientists have had to choose priority areas, based in part on the institutional resources in a given area. Dr. Ben Torke has selected Southeastern Amazonia, working closely with a very young university in Santarém called the Federal University of Western Pará (UFOPA). I focused for 25 years on the Brazilian state of Acre, later expanding the scope of the effort to include the rest of Southwestern Amazonia, particularly the state of Rondônia in Brazil.

Starting in 2010, however, I expanded my Amazonian horizons and began to collaborate with SINCHI, the Amazon research institute of Colombia, which has a small but dynamic botanical team. The domain of the SINCHI botanists, Colombia’s Oriente, is fascinating because it includes the eastern slopes of Andes, which drain into several Amazon tributaries, so in addition to lowland rainforest, it includes montane forests and cloud forests. The focus of my collaboration with SINCHI is the Departamento or State of Caquetá, which has the dubious distinction of the highest rate of deforestation in all of the Oriente and one of the highest in the country. The region’s steep terrain makes its forests easily degraded and its soils quickly eroded, and it is under intense development pressure for cattle, agriculture, mining, and cultivation of coca.

Within Caquetá, we have focused our efforts on the Andaquí region, for several reasons. The historic trail that crosses the region has been in continuous use since pre-Conquest times for trade and escape, even though the terrain is too tough for mules; the name derives from indigenous groups that were never pacified. Keeping in that tradition, a local NGO called Tierra Viva has successfully resisted pressures and occupation by guerrillas, right-wing paramilitary groups, narcotics traffickers, and developers; Tierra Viva’s founder, Herasmo González, was threatened several times and was the runner-up for the Goldman Environmental Prize in 2013.

Moreover, biologically Andaquí is incredibly rich and, until recently, unknown. In 2016 I received a grant from the National Geographic Committee on Exploration to cross the Andaki reserve with botanists from SINCHI, assisted by members of local families. In ten days, we made 1200 collections, corresponding to ca. 1000 species, something almost unheard of. The specimens are still under study, but they have already begun to yield numerous species new to science.

Still in the drainage system of the río Caquetá, and in the Colombian department of Guaviare, La Lindosa is on the Guayana Shield and reminiscent of the geologically ancient landscapes of the Cerrado of Brazil.  I have been on two expeditions there and found several botanical novelties.  La Lindosa also contains an extremely important area of petroglyphs, discovered in 2019 and referred to as the “Sistine Chapel of the Ancients.”

Local Capacity-building and Sustainable Forest Management in Amazonian Brazil

Quantitative forest inventories, in which large numbers of trees are mapped, measured, and named, form the basis of estimates for standing stock of timber and of management plans that when approved allow forest concessions to harvest particular species and volumes of timber. Following the determination by myself and my Acre, Brazil team that in Amazonian forest inventories the majority of species are misidentified, and that the human resources, identification tools and protocols are seriously flawed, one of my primary research commitments has been to improve fundamentally the aspects of forest inventory that relate to tree diversity and identity.

One of our first initiatives was to design courses for training mateiros, the key personnel who perform the field identifications for inventories, starting with national production forests.  At the same time, I convinced the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) to formally invite NYBG to have an advisory role in forest inventory, in regard to personnel, field protocols and strategies for identification, especially for the National Forest Inventory.  Moreover, I was invited by the SFB’s Forest Products Laboratory to be a consultant pro bono for a project to evaluate and plan the (badly needed) overhaul of the national wood collection, which comprises the official reference for the identity of Brazil’s timber resources.

One of the greatest challenges facing Brazil’s protected areas is effective monitoring of the forests over vast distances.  The country’s Biodiversity Institute ICMBio has created a network of 40 protected areas across the Brazilian Amazon that have approved management plans and effective administration, and that have been invited to participate in Programa Monitora.  Within each protected area, the program is establishing permanent inventory plots for long-term monitoring.

With support from the Tinker Foundation and then the Ford Foundation, I assembled a team to assist the local communities and local protected area managers participating in the program.  In addition to providing on-site training in inventory and in collection and identification of trees, we are developing RIPA (Resources for Identification of Plantas of Amazonia), a central portal for a set of tools accessible to local communities to aid in tree identification, including image-driven, interactive keys, laminated field guides to Amazonian timber trees, and a glossary in simple Portuguese of basic descriptive terms, as well as a repository of hundreds of open-access botanical references for identifying particular groups of plants.

Systematic Studies of the Burseraceae

The species of the Burseraceae comprise a modest-sized family of trees, but one that shows outsized importance in the Amazon region, Mexico, Southeast Asia, Tropical East Africa, and Madagascar, because in those regions it makes up many of the individual trees and/or species of the forests they inhabit.  Species of the genus Bursera dominate and define the dry forests of Mexico Near Manaus, Brazil, some 10% of the individual trees are Burseraceae, and the single most common tree species there is a Burseraceae.

Some of this importance has been discovered only recently.  That dominant species near Manaus was described only in 2018 Trees in the genus Canarium were long known to comprise an important component of the structure of Madagascar’s moist forests, but recent work revealed that the genus also comprises an important part of their diversity as well: after two collaborators (one a Malagasy botanist) and I studied the genus intensively in the field and herbarium for a number of years, our taxonomic revision revealed 33 species of Canarium on that island, of which 27 were new to science Only two species were believed to exist there since the 1940s. My work on Canarium has made me realize that the genus needs an enormous amount of work in tropical Asia, where all but one of the remaining ca. 115 species occur, so I have already begun field and herbarium work in Southeast Asia.

The Burseraceae of Amazonia are now relatively well-studied, which makes the family an attractive model for studying processes of evolution and patterns of biogeography in that region. For example, a team that conducted molecular studies of the genus Protium showed that the evolutionary transition from clay soils to sandy soils occurred independently several times, and that speciation in these cases resulted over short distances via habitat shifts and not due to long-term isolation. We are now embarking on a study to decipher the processes and geography of Protium in the Andes, between the Amazon and another center of Burseraceae diversity in the Pacific coastal forests of Colombia and Ecuador. This is taking place in the context of a taxonomic monograph of the entire tribe to which Protium belongs, tackling it section by section. Elsewhere in the family, a Brazilian grad student of mine and I collaborated on a revision of the Neotropical genus Trattinnickia, and I am working with a former student in Colombia on a revision of the larger and more complex pantropical genus Dacryodes; we have described 26 new species of that genus since 2016.


Applications of Leaf Architecture in Systematics and Forest Management

First Catalogue of the Flora of Acre, Brazil

Floristic Exploration in Southeast Asia

Floristic Exploration in Southwestern Amazonia

On the Andaquí Trail: Exploration and Conservation of Colombia’s Eastern Andean Piedmont

Professional Woodsmen for Managed Forests in Amazonian Brazil

Systematic Studies of the Burseraceae


My research revolves around tropical tree systematics and the flora of the Amazon region, focusing on the pantropical frankincense and myrrh family Burseraceae and the flora of southwestern Amazonia. Initially, my work on the Burseraceae was purely taxonomic, but I gradually expanded into the molecular systematics, historical biogeography, ethnobotany, pollen morphology, germination patterns, seedling morphology, and leaf architecture of the group, due in large part to stimulating collaborations with graduate students and colleagues in a number of countries. I became sufficiently interested in the potential applications of leaf architecture in systematics and conservation that I have completed projects with students on the leaves of several plant groups, and I am co-author of a widely used manual of leaf architecture.

I have collaborated with NYBG Honorary Curator John Mitchell for many years on projects and publications about the closely related family Anacardiaceae or cashew nut family, and with several other researchers, we formed a consortium to study the remarkably different evolutionary trajectories of this family and the Burseraceae.

The Burseraceae comprise one of the most difficult, diverse, and ecologically important tree families in Amazonia. Most species are found in primary upland vegetation, and in any given part of the region the family shows high density, high diversity, or both, as is the case in central Amazonia, where up to ten percent of the trees are Burseraceae. Considering that the taxonomy of Neotropical Burseraceae is relatively well-resolved, the family constitutes an excellent tool for studying mechanisms of diversification in Amazonia.

My geographical interest in the Amazon region centered for 25 years on the Brazilian state of Acre. Through collaborative research supplemented by recruitment and training, my group was able to complete a spectrum of projects in the region, culminating in the first catalogue of the flora, including the first flora checklist of an Amazonian state, its botanical history, an analysis of its floristic affinities, and an analytical glossary of common names for plants in Acre.  Moreover, we have conducted studies of the ethnobotany of rubber-tapper and indigenous communities, management and commercialization of specific non-timber forest products, the ecology of the bamboo forests that characterize the region, characterization of two unusual vegetation types, and a manual of the palms of Acre, among others.  By 2010 I began replicating the Acre program in neighboring Rondônia State, and my focus had begun to embrace the whole southwestern quadrant of Amazonia.

I have always believed that it is not only possible but actually incumbent on botanists to apply their research results to real-world problems. In Acre, by making our research program an indispensible source of information on the plant resources of southwestern Amazonia, my Brazilian collaborators and I have been able to advance conservation and help guide public policy in a number of ways, including participating directly in the Acre State zoning project, providing justifications for the creation of new conservation units, and advising government agencies and forest communities on standards and protocols for ensuring sustainability of managed forests.

Selected Publications

Daly, D. C. & G. T. Prance  1989.  Brazilian Amazon.  Pages 401‑426.  In:  D. G. Campbell & H. D. Hammond, eds.  Floristic inventory of tropical countries.  New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

Balée, W. & D. C. Daly  1990.  Ka’apor resin classification.  Advances in Economic Botany 8: 24‑34.

Daly, D. C.  1990.  The genus Tetragastris and the forests of Eastern Brazil ‑ Studies in neotropical Burseraceae III.  Kew Bull. 45: 179‑194.

Daly, D. C.  1992.  Tree of life [about taxol and the yew tree].  Audubon 94(2): 76‑85.

Lisboa, P. L. B. & D. C. Daly, eds.  1991 [1993]. Trinta anos de cooperação entre o MG e o NYBG [Thirty Years of Cooperation between the MG and the NYBG.].  Bol. Mus. Paraense, sec. Bot. 7(2) (450 pp.).

Mitchell, J. D. & D. C. Daly  1993.  A revision of the genus Thyrsodium (Anacardiaceae).  Brittonia 45: 115‑129.

Daly, D. C.  1993.  Notes on Bursera in South America, including a new species.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae VII.  Brittonia 45: 240‑246.

Daly, D. C.  1995.  The perils of collecting [botanical history of Amazonia].  Audubon 97(1): 78-86.

Daly, D. C. & C. A. Limbach  1996.  The role of the physician in medicinal plant research.  In:  M. J. Balick, E. Elisabetsky, & S. Laird, eds.,  Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and its Importance to Human Health.  Pages 48-64.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Daly, D. C.  1996.  The leaf that launched a thousand ships [about the Late Blight of potato, particularly in Ireland].  Natural History 105(1): 6, 24-32.

Harley, M. M. & D. C. Daly  1995.  Burseraceae-Protieae.  World Pollen and Spore Flora 20: 1-44.

Daly, D. C.  1996.  Subregion of southwestern Amazon moist forest — Upper Rio Purus in Acre and contiguous Bolivia — Brazil, Bolivia.  pp. II-14-15 in D. Olson,  E. Dinerstein, G. Castro, and E. Maraví, eds.  Identifying Gaps in Botanical Information for Biodiversity Conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean.  World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D. C.

Daly, D. C., R. Foster, & B. León  1996.  Southwestern Amazon moist forest-Southwest, Juruá, Purus-Madeira — Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.  pp. II-13-14 in D. Olson,  E. Dinerstein, G. Castro, & E. Maraví, eds.  loc. cit.

Daly, D. C.  1997.  Burseraceae.  Pages 688-728.  In: J. Steyermark, P. E. Berry, & B. Holst, eds.  Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana.  Vol. 3.  Timber Press, Portland.

Silveira, M., N. M. C. de Paula, I. F. Brown, H. B. N. Borges, D. Daly & L. A. Ferreira  1997.  Os “buracos negros” da diversidade – Estudos no Acre revelam precariedade do conhecimento sobre a flora amazônica [The “black holes” of diversity — Studies in Acre reveal the precariousness of our knowledge of the Amazonian flora].  Ciência Hoje 22(128): 64-65.

Daly, D. C.  1993 (1997).  Systematics and ethnobotany: What’s in a name?  Delpinoa, n.s. 35-36: 3-14.

Ricker, M. & D. C. Daly  1998.  Botánica económica en bosques tropicales ‑ principios y métodos para su estudio y aprovechamiento [“Economic Botany in Tropical Forests — Principles and Methods for their Study and Utilization”].  Editorial Diana, México, D.F.

Daly, D. C.  1999.  Burseraceae.  Pages 363-365.  In:  P. M. Jorgensen and S. León-Yánez, eds., Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador.  Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Daly, D. C.  1999.  Notes on Trattinnickia, including a synopsis in eastern Brazil’s Atlantic forest complex.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae IX.  Kew Bulletin 54 (1): 129-137.

Oliveira, A. A. de & D. C. Daly  1999.  Geographic distribution of tree species occurring in the region of Manaus, Brazil:  Implications for regional diversity and conservation.  Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1245-1259.

Ricker, M., R. O. Mendelsohn, D. C. Daly, & G. Ángeles  1999.  Enriching the rainforest with native fruit trees:  An ecological and economic analysis in Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, Mexico).  Ecological Economics 31: 439-448.

Daly, D. C. & J. D. Mitchell  2000.  Lowland vegetation of tropical South America — an overview.  Pages 391-454.  In:  Lentz, D., ed.  Imperfect Balance:  Landscape Transformations in the pre-Columbian Americas.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Oliveira, A. A. de & D. C. Daly, eds.  2001.  Florestas do Rio Negro [“Forests of the Rio Negro”].  Companhia das Letras, São Paulo.  337 pp.

Daly, D. C.  2001.  Trilhas botânicas no Rio Negro [“Botanical footsteps in the Rio Negro”].  Pages 25-59.  In:  Oliveira, A. de & D. C. Daly, eds.  Florestas do Rio Negro. [loc. cit.]

Daly, D. C., K. M. Cameron & D. W. Stevenson  2001.  Plant systematics in the age of genomics.  Plant Physiology 127: 1328-1333.

Daly, D. C. & M. Silveira  2002.  Aspectos florísticos da bacia do Alto Juruá:  História botânica, peculiaridades, similaridades e importância para conservação [“Floristic aspects of the Rio Juruá basin:  Botanical history, peculiarities, similarities, and importance for conservation”].  Pages 53-63.  In:  M. Carneiro da Cunha & M. B. Almeida, eds.  Enciclopédia da Floresta [“Encyclopedia of the Forest”].  Companhia das Letras, São Paulo.

Daly, D. C.  2002.  Crepidospermum atlanticum sp. nov., a genus new to eastern Brazil’s Atlantic forest complex.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae X.  Kew Bulletin 57: 471-477.

Daly, D. C.  2002.  Burseraceae.  In:  S. A. Mori, G. Cremers, C. Gracie, J.-J. de Granville, M. Hoff, & J. D. Mitchell, eds.  Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana.  Part 2.  Dicotyledons.  Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 76(2): 151-165.

Daly, D. C.  2003.   Burseraceae; Erythroxylaceae; Flacourtiaceae; Lacistemataceae; Peridiscaceae.  Pages 67-70, 143-145, 158-161, 200-201, 290-291.  In:  N. P. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson,  D. W. Stevenson, & S. V. Heald, eds.  Flowering Plant Families of the  American Tropics.  Princeton University Press/New York Botanical Garden.

Daly, D. C.  2004.  Diversas outras espécies [“Diverse other species”].  Pages 223-232.  In:  Shanley, P. & G. Medina, eds.  Frutíferas e Plantas Úteis na Vida Amazônica [“Fruits and Useful Plants in Amazonian Life”].  Editora Supercores, CIFOR/IMAZON, Belém.

Weeks, A., D. C. Daly, & B. B. Simpson  2005.  The phylogenetic history and historical biogeography of the frankincense and myrrh family (Burseraceae) based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35:  85-101.

Fine, P. V. A., D. C. Daly, F. G. Villa M., I. Mesones A., & K. M. Cameron  2005.  The contribution of edaphic heterogeneity to the evolution and diversity of Burseraceae trees in the Western Amazon.  Evolution 29: 1464-1478.

Mitchell, J. D., D. C. Daly, S. Pell, & A. Randrianasolo  2006.  Poupartiopsis gen. nov. and its context in Anacardiaceae classification.  Systematic Botany 31: 337-348.

Daly, D. C., D. P. Costa, & A. W. F. Melo  2006.  The “salão” vegetation of Southwestern Amazonia.  Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 2905-2923.

Bletter, N. & D. C. Daly  2006.  Cacao and its relatives in South America:  An overview of taxonomy, ecology, biogeography, chemistry, and ethnobotany.  Pages 31-68.  In:  C. McNeil, ed.  Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Cacao.  University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

Daly, D. C.  2007.  A new section of Protium Burm. f. from the Neotropics.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XIV.  Brittonia 59: 1-24.

Daly, D. C. & A. Millozza  2007. “Lost” plant collections from the Amazon 1.  The 1899 expedition of Dr. Luigi Buscalioni.  Taxon 56: 185-199.

Griscom, B. W., D. C. Daly, & P. M. S. Ashton  2007.  Floristics of bamboo-dominated stands in lowland terra-firma forests of southwestern Amazonia.  Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Society 134 (1): 108-125.

Daly, D. C.  2007.  The local branch:  Toward better management of production forests in Amazonia.  Public Garden 22(2): 12-15.

Daly, D. C., M. Silveira, & collaborators  2008.  First Catalogue of the Flora of Acre, Brazil/Primeiro Catálogo da Flora do Acre, Brasil.  PRINTAC/EDUFAC, Rio Branco.  421 pp.

Ellis, B., D. C. Daly, L. Hickey, K. R. Johnson, J. D. Mitchell, P. Wilf & S. L. Wing  2009.  Manual of Leaf Architecture.  Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Daly, D. C.  2010.  Burseraceae.  Pp. 818-821 in Forzza, R. C. et al., Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio/ Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. (also:

Daly, D. C.  2010.  Burseraceae; Amazonian species.  In:  Giulietti, A. M.,  L. Paganucci de Queiroz, A. Rapini, J. M. Cardoso da Silva, & M. J. Gomes de Andrade, eds., Catálogo de Espécies de Plantas Raras do Brasil [Catalogue of Rare Plant Species of Brazil].  Conservação Internacional do Brasil.

Daly, D. C.  2011 Burseraceae.  In:  Idárraga, A. et al., eds., Catalogo de La Flora de Antioquia. Vol 2.  Programa Expedición Antioquia. Gobernación de Antioquia Editorial Colina, Medellin.

Daly, D. C., M. M. Harley, M.-C. Martínez-Habibe, & A. Weeks.  2011.  Burseraceae. In K. Kubitzki, ed., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Vol. X.  Flowering Plants.  Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.  Pp. 76-104.

Daly, D. C. & P. V. A. Fine.  2011.  A new Amazonian section of Protium  (Burseraceae) including both edaphic specialist and generalist taxa.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XVI.  Systematic Botany 36: 139-149.

Obermüller, F. A., D. C. Daly, E. C. Oliveira, H. F. T. P. Sousa, H. M. Oliveira, L. S. Souza, & M. Silveira   2011.  Guia Ilustrado e Manual de Arquitetura Foliar para Espécies Madeireiras da Amazônia Ocidental.  [electronic version] Editora  G. K. Noronha, Rio Branco, AC, Brazil.

Daly, D. C., D. Neill, & M. C. Martínez-Habibe  2012.  An ecologically significant new species of Dacryodes from the northern Andes. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XV.  Brittonia 64: 49-56.

Daly, D. C., P. V. A. Fine & M. C. Martínez-Habibe  2012.  Burseraceae:  A model for studying the Amazon flora.  Rodriguesia 63: 21-30.

Mitchell, J. D., D. C. Daly, & A. Randrianasolo  2012.  The first report of Spondias native to Madagascar:  Spondias tefyi, sp. nov. (Anacardiaceae).   Brittonia 64: 263-267.

Carvalho, A. L., B. W. Nelson, M. C. Bianchini, D. Plagnol, T. Kuplich & D. C. Daly  2013.  Bamboo-dominated forests of the Southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.  PLoS ONE 8(1): e54852. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054852.

Fine, P. V. A., D. C. Daly, T. M. Misiewicz, I. Mesones, F. Zapata, and H. F. Cooper 2013.  Phylogeography of edaphic specialist and generalist species of Protium (Burseraceae): the relative importance of geographic distance and environmental heterogeneity in generating phylogeographic structure across the Amazon basin.  Journal of Biogeography 60: 646-661.

ter Steege, H. et al. [incl. D. C. Daly] 2013.   Hyperdominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora.  Science 342 (DOI: 10.1126/science.1243092)

Fine, P. V. A., F. Zapata, & D. C. Daly  2014.  Investigating processes of Neotropical rain forest tree diversification by examining the evolution and historical biogeography of the Protieae (Burseraceae).  Evolution 68: 1988–2004 [Evolution on-line DOI: 10.1111/evo.12414].

Daly, D. C.  2014.  Bursera pereirae, a genus new to the Cerrado complex of Brazil.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XVIII.  Brittonia 66: 186-190.

Daly, D. C.  2014.  Dacryodes patrona, a new and endangered species and new generic record for Central America. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XIX.  Brittonia 66: 307-310. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-014-9334-4.

Vasco, A., M. Thadeo, M. Conover & D. C. Daly  2014.  Preparation of samples for leaf architecture studies, a method for mounting cleared leaves.  Applications in Plant Sciences 2(9): 140038 (7 pp., incl. supplements).

Weeks, A., F. Zapata, S. K. Pell, D. C. Daly, J. D. Mitchell & P. V. A. Fine  2014.  To move or to evolve: Contrasting patterns of intercontinental connectivity and climatic niche evolution in “Terebinthaceae” (Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae).  Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 5, Nov 2014, Article 409: 1-20.

Daly, D. C.  2014.  Burseraceae.  Pages 441-443.  In Jorgensen, P. M., M. H. Nee & S. G. Beck, eds., Catálogo de la Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia.  Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Mitchell, J. D. & D. C. Daly  2015.  A revision of Spondias (Anacardiaceae) in the Neotropics.  Phytokeys 55: 1-92.

Federman, S., A. Dornburg, A. Downie, A. F. Richard, D. C. Daly, & M. J. Donoghue  2015.  The biogeographic origin of a radiation of trees in Madagascar: Implications for the assembly of a tropical forest biome.  BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 216 (DOI 10.1186/s12862-015-0483-1)(ca. 14 pp. w/o supporting docs).

Daly, D. C., J. Raharimampionona & S. Federman  2015.  A revision of Canarium (Burseraceae) in Madagascar.  Adansonia (sér. 3) 37: 277-345.

Ronellenfitsch, H., J. Lasser, D. C. Daly & E. Katifori  2015. Topological phenotypes of leaf vascular networks.  PLoS Computational Biology (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004680)(ca. 10 pp. w/o supporting docs).

Daly, D. C., M. Silveira, H. Medeiros, W. Castro, & F. A. Obermüller  2016.  The white-sand vegetation of Acre, Brazil.  Biotropica 48: 81-89.

Daly, D. C. & M. C. Martínez-Habibe 2016.  Seven new species of Dacryodes from Colombia.  Studies in Neotropical Burseraceae XXI.  Brittonia 68: 120-137(DOI 10.1007/s12228-015-9405-1.

Federman, S., A. Dornburg, D. C. Daly, A. Downie, G. H. Perry, A. D. Yoder, E. J. Sargis, A. F. Richard, M. J. Donoghue, and A. L. Baden. Implications of lemuriform extinctions for the Malagasy flora. PNAS 113 (18): 5041-5046 (

Martínez-Habibe, M. C. & D. C. Daly  2016.  A taxonomic revision of Bursera subgen. Bursera in the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas.  Brittonia 68: 455-475.

Federman, S., M. Sinnott-Armstrong, A. L. Baden, C. Chapman, D. C. Daly, A. R. Richard, K. Valenta & M. J. Donoghue 2017.  The paucity of frugivores in Madagascar may not be due to unpredictable temperatures or fruit resources. PLOSOne.  DOI:

Cardoso, D. [+ multiple authors] 2017. Amazon plant diversity revealed by a taxonomically verified species list. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Federman, S., M. Donoghue, D. C. Daly, & D. Eaton. 2018. Reconciling species diversity in a tropical plant clade (Canarium, Burseraceae). PLoS One 13(6): e0198882.

Daly, D. C. & P. V. A. Fine. 2018. Generic limits in Protium and tribe Protieae (Burseraceae) re-visited. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XXV. Brittonia 70: 418-426.  DOI: 10.1007/s12228-018-9533-5.

Daly, D. C 2018 Notes on the Burseraceae in central Amazonia, including four new taxa. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XXVI. Brittonia 70: 427-444DOI: 10.1007/s12228-018-9537-1.

Daly, D. C., M. Silveira & F. A. Obermüller 2018.  Making and making use of a baseline: Botanical research and the legacy of Chico Mendes. Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente 48: 432-445. DOI:                                

Daly, D. C. & M. C. Martínez-Habibe. 2019 (February).  Ten new species of Dacryodes from Amazonia and the Guianas.  Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XXIV.  Brittonia 71: 201-224.

Martínez-Habibe, M. C. & D. C. Daly. 2019. Nine new species of Dacryodes from Andean South America. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XXIV.  Brittonia 71: 1-20

Damasco, G., V. Shivakumar, T. Misiewicz, D. Daly, & P. Fine.  2019 Leaf transcriptome assembly of Protium copal (Burseraceae) and annotation of terpene biosynthetic genes. Genes 2019, 10, 392; DOI:10.3390/genes10050392.

Damasco, G., D. C. Daly, A. Vicentini & P. V. Fine.  2019. Re-establishment of Protium cordatum (Burseraceae) based on integrative taxonomy. Taxon 68: 34–46.

Daly, D. C.  2019. Roberto Burle Marx and Brazilian Plant Diversity.  Pages 61-76.  In:  Sullivan, E. J. & J. L. Groarke, eds.  Brazilian Modern:  The Living Art of Roberto Burle Marx.  New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

Daly, D. C.  2020.  We have been in lockdown, but deforestation has not. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Opinion. PNAS 202018489. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2018489117.

Daly, D. C., C. A. Reynel-Rodríguez, & R. Fernández-Hilario. 2020. A new Andean species of Protium. Studies in neotropical Burseraceae XXIX.  Brittonia 72(3), 290-302. DOI:

Damasco, G., P. V. A. Fine, C. Baraloto, A. Vicentini, D. C. Daly, B. G. Baldwin (in press). Revisiting the hyperdominance of Neotropical tree species under a taxonomic, functional and evolutionary perspective.

Raharimampionona, J., M. Gostel & D. C. Daly (accepted for publication) Famille Burseraceae : les genres malgaches [Burseraceae: the Malagasy genera]. In: Goodman, S. M. (ed.) (in press). The new natural history of Madagascar. Princeton, Princeton University Press.